Evaluation of several Air Conditioning and Ventilation Energy Saving Strategies and Technologies in an Office Building

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The British University in Dubai (BUID)
Managing energy consumption in the building sector become one of the engineers' priority to reducing greenhouse gases GHGs which affect climate and air quality negatively. This is how the scientists, researchers and engineers linked the building design/ system and climate change and air pollution. There is a large volume of literature review investigated the impact of the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system on energy consumption. Besides, how to enhance the HVAC system to be responded to energy saving while keeping indoor air quality and occupants thermal comfort at the acceptable level. As per the previous studies, in a warm climate, the cooling system responsible for most of the energy utilised in the building. This research examines and evaluates some HVAC strategies and technologies aimed at reducing energy consumption in the office building in the United Arab Emirates UAE. Four scenarios have been created for the summer months and one scenario for the winter months by using the simulation method in the IES VE program. Summer scenarios strategies included the use of programmable thermostat settings in order to reduce energy and shift the peak hour loads while considering occupants thermal comfort. The optimal summer months` scenario achieved a reduction of 43.63% compared with the summer months base case which is 32.1503 MW/h in sensible cooling load. In comparison, Natural ventilation is introduced in winter month scenario in the morning hours only. To regulate and adjust the window opening with the cooling system, a type of controller is applied under a specific formula. The winter scenario can achieve reduction reaches to 27.22% compared with the winter base case. Looking for consumption per year for the optimal scenario can meet 43.44% compared with the base case per year (summer and winter months) which is 32.5076 MW/h in sensible cooling loads. The optimal scenario was further upgraded by applying CO2 controller to obtain more energy reduction per year at the same time maintain the indoor air quality. The CO2 controller is designed to maintain the CO2 level at no more than 1000 ppm. Optimal scenario with the CO2 controller can implement an 87.5% reduction compared with the base case in sensible and latent load. Both controllers for the CO2 and the window opening in winter scenario are worked under fuzzy logic which, is (If/Then).
building energy, CO2 controller, active design, cooling system, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), United Arab Emirates (UAE)