ItemImplementation of Time of Use Electricity Rate Structure in Dubai to Enhance the Performance of the Local Utility Provider(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2023-07) ALFUQAEI, MOZA KHALIL; Professor Bassam AbuhijlehOne of the main concerns in today’s world is the examination of the best practices around the world and the use of environmentally responsible practices in the construction industry. Construction and manufacturing, on the other hand, account for a significant portion of global electricity consumption; As a result, environmental groups in governments around the world are constantly working to find solutions to this problem. In recent years, the UAE has hosted many important groups working towards environmental sustainability and environmental protection, however, as a country with exceptionally hot summers, the UAE faces significant challenges in conserving energy thus reducing its impact on the environment. Yet, as a country whose environment is dominated by exceptionally hot climate, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) faces significant difficulties in preserving energy thus reducing the impact on the environment. It has been proven that the building sector is taking most of the energy usage in the UAE. Dubai particularly, is an active attractive city for new residents and business owners. Since the population is increasing, electricity usage is increasing as well, thus the electricity load curve is fluctuating significantly. which will result in high electricity consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to create a Time of Use (ToU) electricity rate structure that is appropriate for Dubai's electricity users. Implementing a time of use rate plan would help to flatten the electricity load curve by shifting the load into other periods of time throughout the day. thus, improving the operation and effective use of the electricity supply. The method for constructing the plan involves evaluating the methods applied in various nations to develop and implement the ToU rates. ToU pricing is a cost-effective power pricing method that has proved effective in reducing peak electricity use. Yet, in order for the ToU pricing model to be successful, it must be applied to consumers gradually and adaptably by giving them a variety of options to choose from. Using effective load shifting techniques, ToU pricing not only helps the country economically but also the environment by reducing pollution emissions. Technical, regulatory, and stakeholder requirements are nevertheless necessary for the execution of the price plan. ItemInvestigating the Performance of Dynamic MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PVs to Energy and Visual Comfort Case Study of an Existing office building in Dubai(The British University of Dubai (BUiD), 2022-12) ALQUBATI, SARAThe facades are a major factor in the energy consumption of the buildings, as the large glass facades are a great source of energy consumption, especially in hot climates. The UAE is one of the countries that contribute to spreading awareness and applying the use of alternative energy as a means to dispense with coal sources due to their impact on the environment. In addition, buildings equipped with solar panels have a promising future in terms of focusing on smart and adaptive aspects. The effect of vertical dynamic solar panels for an office building in Dubai was studied during the dynamic Rhino\DIVA program. This is to delve into the extent of the impact of the angles of the panels in terms of energy and visual comfort for the interior of the buildings, as the number of angles for three scenarios reached 314 angles during the year. Three scenarios for the panels were studied based on tracking the movement of the sun's angles, in addition to changing the type of window glass. The visual comfort of the second and third scenarios has been achieved within the required range. As for the southwest office, it achieved a reduction of 81.75% in the lighting energy and 72% in the cooling energy compared to the base case when using the third scenario with EC tinted glass. The scenarios were compared in a final step, and the absolute scenario was identified and compared with the actual bills for the entire building, in addition to the energy generated for the scenario panels. The results indicated that it is possible to reduce the energy consumption of the entire building by 43% compared to the actual bills of the building when using semi-dynamic and fixed panels during the year. In addition to the highest scenario for generating energy during the year, especially the southern office. ItemBIM for Economic Green Retrofitting based on LEED- EBOM(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2020-09) MEREB, EMANThe current situation of global warming requires many actions to reduce the GHG emissions and resources depletion so the governments around the world defined several visions and plans to be achieved within long term and short-term programs. Built environment is considered as one of the main participants in the global warming since it releases 40% of the total GHG in the planet. Green retrofitting can be an effective solution to reduce the negative impacts of the existing built environment through optimizing the energy efficiency, reduce the energy and water consumption, maintain the internal comfort level, eliminate the usage of non-environmentally friendly building materials and many other practices that can be very effective. The proposed solutions should be evaluated based the green retrofitting standards like LEED-EBOM and should be costly viable since the owners are normally looking for minimum cost and shortest payback period. In the UAE, there are many projects were retrofitted and achieved significant savings through applying different strategies and initiatives to reduce the GHG emissions and resources consumptions. This research aims to check the potentials of green retrofitting actions that can be applied to upgrade an existing Nursery building to be LEED-EBOM certified and to reduce the cost of energy and water consumption by using Revit model for each retrofitting option which will help to calculate the amount of energy and water saving, the cost reduction, the payback period and the LEED-EBOM credits for each retrofitting options which include exterior wall insulation, double glazing windows installation, roof insulation, new AC system, air quality system, new lights with sensors, new solar water heaters and condensation system. The total energy reduction of the proposed retrofitting options is 43% (135987kW/year) and the reduction of water consumption is 56% (1022 m3/year) besides these savings, the internal environment will be better by adding fresh air unit and the AC will be unified for all spaces with minimum noise level and the building will be LEED-EBOM certified. ItemInvestigating the causes and drivers of food waste in the hospitality sector in Dubai-UAE. Toward implementing food waste prevention strategies.”(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-12) SADEH, REHAM ZEYADSaving natural resources to protect the planet and help sustain a better future for the generations requires focusing mainly on the three pillars of a sustainable society that are important for humans to live and interact. These are the social, economic and environmental pillars. The world was united to put international goals in order to reduce the recent problems that are affecting these pillars; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or the Global Goals. Goal number 12 of these 17 SDGs focuses on making consumption and production reasonable to lower the use of natural resources and decrease the waste generated consequently. The food loss and waste problem have been the focus of individuals and governments in the late few years; this is referred to as its effects on the sustainable vision of the countries as well as its impact on the social, economic and environmental sides of them. Tackling this issue needs the united efforts of the private and public sectors and is considered under goal SDG 12.3. Food loss is the decrease in food amounts before consumption, mostly in developing countries. While Food waste focuses on food thrown out after consumption, left intentionally or thrown away, and mostly in developed countries. The UAE has one of the highest per capita amounts of food waste yearly, around 224kg. Thus, efforts to tackle the problem have to start, this is in alignment with achieving international targets like SDG 12.3 and national ones such as “Zero Hunger” by 2051. Huge efforts and initiatives in the country are established. Their work is mainly focused on recovering food waste through banks, composting and animal feeds. However, source reduction is considered the top priority in solving the food waste problem. This research fills the theoretical gap, which was confirmed to be lacking in the country, in finding the causes and drivers of food waste in the hospitality sector of Dubai, and suggests prevention strategies to be implemented in food services to reduce it. The hospitality sector of the Emirate of Dubai is considered one of the major sectors contributing to food waste as Dubai is a tourist hub. A mixed-mode methodology was used to collect the data; it distributed two surveys using jisc.com to the public food services users (guests, N=361) and the food services providers (employees, N=91), followed by interviewing seven experts with high positions to verify the results. The leading causes of food waste from the customers’ side that all participants agreed on and ranked by most effective were: taking big portions and seeing abundance in types and amounts, the lack of awareness, and the cultural habits shown in generosity in over-ordering. While causes of FW from the food services are summarized mainly in their over-production and wrong planning and forecasting for numbers. Other factors were checked for their effect on food waste according to the opinion of the (guests, employers), to find that (45%, 47%) chose winter season, (93%, 71%) chose weekend days, and (71%, 64%) chose buffet type. Results were checked by SPSS program for a general trend with some demographics to show that guests with higher salary and going to high-end services mainly chose “food presentation” as a major cause of FW and employees working in high-end services find FW to be depending on “meal time”. The primary prevention strategies suggested by the interviewees were using smart-scales technology like Winnow, reducing portion/plate sizes, sourcing locally, using menu engineering, raising the chefs’ education through awareness campaigns and training, and using encouraging messages to remind the people to save their planet. These suggestions along with the accepted strategies by the surveyed samples were the base for developing a fundamental plan for food services to start working on and follow up with the global trend of “Target, Measure and Act”. ItemInvestigation of Indoor Particulate Matter (PM) Level in Office Buildings in the UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-06) AYAD, BEMAN ATEFThe air around us is a mixture of many elements from different states. The particulate matters are suspended particles in the air, which are in liquid or solid state. These particulate matters have a major impact on human health. Due to their size, they can be inhaled and penetrate through the respiratory system, causing allergies, diseases or in extreme cases, it can cause death. This study focuses on investigating the concentration of indoor particulate matter in office buildings in the United Arab Emirates. Two offices in Dubai, the heart of the industrial hub, had been selected for the study. An online questionnaire had been distributed to the office workers, to collect information about the space. Participants from office A had shown some symptoms of difficulty in concentration, running nose, burning of eyes, dizziness, and difficulty in sleeping. Whereas in office B, the results of the questionnaire had indicated a rise in the symptoms experienced than in office A. The PM concentration had been measured at morning, noon and afternoon for each office, for two consecutive days. These results were compared with the international standard levels set by the World Health Organization. In office A, the PM2.5 concentration were 4.292 µg/m3 (morning), 4.690 µg/m3 (noon) and 3.735 µg/m3 (evening). Whereas in office B, the PM2.5 concentration were 82.619 µg/m3 (morning), 75.634 µg/m3 (noon) and 56.851 µg/m3 (evening). Unlike office B, office A were within the recommended 24-hour air quality guideline (AQG) level stated by the WHO for PM2.5 which is 15 µg/m3. For PM10 concentration in office A, it was 32.78 µg/m3 (morning), 19.71 µg/m3 (noon) and 8.63 µg/m3 (evening). While in office B, the PM10 concentration were 133.083 µg/m3 (morning), 100.661 µg/m3 (noon) and 59.490 µg/m3 (evening). Based on the results, PM10 concentration in office A were within the recommended 24-hour AQG level for PM10 which is 45 µg/m3. There were many factors that had led the PM concentration in office B to be high, including the office building being located in an industrial district and the use of split system air conditioning which cools only the air without exhausting the air pollutants in the space. The author had further investigated the particle count emitted by the common sources of air pollutants in an office space, which are the human and the computer. Based on the measurements and calculations, the PM2.5 particle count emitted by the human is 35 particles per minute as an approximate. While for the computer, a total of 10 particles of PM2.5 is emitted per minute. For particles which are larger in size (PM10) they were emitted by the human with a total of 1 particle per 2 minutes and 18 seconds. ItemUtilizing Current Resources to Deliver Sustainable Living Solutions in Refugee Camps. Case study: Al Za’atari Camp(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-12) AL ZAHABI, SALMA-Purpose: Due to the tremendous negative impacts caused by man-made disasters on human living worldwide, study emphasize on finding sustainable solutions for stable and durable living in refugees camps by looking into longer period occupancy using existing available resources and reducing footprints caused by poor refugee camps early planning, infrastructure, and management. -Aims & Objectives: Study focus on developing existing facilities by looking into resources and potentials available within camp borders and producing affordable, self-sufficient, and modular designs accessible and durable for longer living. This paper will be based on selected case study “Al Za’atari Camp” for Syrian refugees in northern Jordan; recorded as the second largest refugee camp in the world. Study objective offer camp management proposal as a sample for other refugee’s camp to upgrade current system and experience better living standards until refugees return back home, and utilize camp facilities using for future usages as a second occupancy phase. -Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on an extensive literature review undertaken to compare current project conditions and available shelter solutions, study surveys Al Za’atari Camp UNHCR Management and looks into camp currents activities, monthly reports, and factsheets, proposing flexible design solutions and strategies that are examined using design approach and simulation analysis based on detected issues and problems. -Finding/Outcomes: The study results in proposing five sustainable approaches through Education & Training, Livelihoods & Camp Management, Shelter Planning, Power Generation, WASH, and Waste Management facilities on a selected district and examining approaches that are able to ensure basic healthy environment and modular shelter solutions for refugees based on the area requirements and usage. ItemEnhancing Bifaciality Factor for Building Integrated Bifacial PV in a Double Skin Façade System(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-06) WRIEKAT, TAQWA FAWAZOn a global scale the move towards renewable energy is at its highest rates, new technological developments aiming to increase efficiency of energy production and reducing overall cost, making renewables viable on all scales. United Arab Emirates is one of the countries that are pioneering in the area of renewable green energy, with the goal is to increase the contribution of green energy up to 50% by the year 2050 and reduce the carbon footprint by 70 % by increasing consumption efficiency and introducing versatile energy sources that are more sustainable. Considering that the region solar energy provides prospects in terms of energy yields and project scalability. Specially within the building sector, which is an energy demanding sector, lies the opportunity to cover the energy requirements through implementation of localized solar energy generating schemes in the form of standalone PV panels and building integrated photovoltaics. Moreover, applying novel innovations in solar power to maximize energy yields. One of these technologies is bifacial photovoltaic panels, which is a type of PV panels that produce electricity from both sides compared to regular Monofacial PV that utilize the front surface only. Studies shows that bifacial panels produce 25-40% more electricity than Monofacial panels in all installation schemes. This research examines the application of bifacial PV integrated within building elements, specifically double skin façade, where the Bifacial PV presents the second outer façade in a double skin façade configuration. The study objective is to analyze the bifaciality factor under different façade material and façade gap distances using ray tracing computer simulation software (TracePro). Bifaciality factor is the ratio of irradiance hitting the rear of solar panel to the total irradiance, which is a parameter to evaluate the performance of bifacial PV panels. The optical performance of the façade envelope directly affects the value of bifaciality factor (bifacial back side irradiance to bifacial front side irradiance). Bifaciality factor significantly impacts electrical energy production of bifacial PV cells, and it is the main factor when comparing different bifacial PV technologies. To answer the question of which façade material provides the highest bifaciality factor, therefore, the highest electrical yields of bifacial BIPV as part of a double skin system, computer simulations for optical performance were analyzed. The simulation matrix applied in this study consists of four façade materials: clear glass, reflective glass, white paint cladding and diffused white paint cladding. Each façade material was simulated for four different gap distance (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 m). The ray tracing simulation applied a solar emulator specifically for Dubai UAE solar profile. Simulation results were provided as Irradiance maps with data like façade incident irradiance, bifacial back surface incident irradiance, bifacial front surface incident irradiance and number of rays exiting each surface. Bifaciality factor was calculated using Excel for all simulation scenarios. The simulation with the highest bifaciality factor is Scenario No.13, which is the scenario of diffused white paint cladding for a façade gap distance equal to 0.5m. With bifaciality factor of 14.32%, followed by S5, Bifaciality factor of 13.74%, presenting reflective glass façade with 0.5m gap distance. It was noticed that across the same façade material increasing the gap distance reduced the Bifaciality factor, that reduction was the highest between gap distance of 1m and 2m, almost half for all façade materials. ItemAn Analysis of Thermal Comfort at the School Outdoor Spaces: A Case Study of the American School of Creative Science, Dubai, UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-06) ABU-QULBAIN, LANAOutdoor school spaces are significant spaces which, regardless of a child’s residential area, provide great opportunity for outdoor space exploration leading to overall enhancement to the students’ wellbeing. This paper analyzes the outdoor school spaces of a school in Dubai to optimize its outdoor school spaces and ensure their thermal comfort. To achieve this aim, and using mixed methodology approach of survey, field observation, workshops and ENVI-Met V5.3 software simulation, the initial school outdoor spaces were analyzed and then enhanced by means of several proposed heat mitigation strategies. The enhanced outcome was evaluated against the initial one, using PET (physiological equivalent temperature), revealing that shade separately had the highest impact on its corresponding location with a decrease of up to 16% in PET, but no decrease to the overall PET of the microclimate. Additionally, the addition of vegetation alone had an impact on the microclimate decreasing it by 5%. Thus, combining the strategies of vegetation, shade, green facades/roofs and small water features resulted in 5% to 25% reduction in PET depending on the corresponding location being analyzed. The enhancements also led to reduction in the building energy flux, by up to 5%. The results obtained provide insight and guidelines for school designers and school board members on how to evaluate and enhance the school outdoor spaces to ensure they are thermally comfortable. ItemThe impact of switching from fluorescent lights to full-spectrum fluorescent and LED lighting in schools: An experiment in Victoria Int’l School in Sharjah(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-04) SEJARI, NOURHAN JAMALHuman performance is influenced by lighting in many situations. Many studies have investigated how lighting impacts academic performance, focus, and motivation. The issue of color rendering and temperature is becoming increasingly important as high efficiency lamps and government regulations are enforced. For decades, fluorescent lamps have been used in educational systems to provide high-quality, efficient lighting. Fluorescent lamps can negatively affect the built environment as well as the surrounding environment. Several studies have been conducted to show that LED lamps have positive effects in the built environment. Several studies show that LED lamps with high color temperature correlation affect perceptions and actions positively in the classroom and workplace. In the workplace and in school, it can increase engagement and on-task behavior. This study develops experimental research for effects of LED, fluorescent, and full spectrum lighting on classroom’s children. To assess various effects related to classroom lighting on children between the ages of four and seven, an online survey was developed. During the Mother's Day morning tea celebration, a survey was conducted among three classrooms of Victoria International School's Early Learning Center. Results of the study indicate that 5000K or higher LED lighting has a significant impact on perceptions of attitudes and behaviors associated with alertness, focus, and performance in a classroom. Further experimental studies are required to evaluate attitudes as well as behaviors related to classroom illumination and how dynamic lighting affects students. Item"The impact of sustainable urban planning in the redevelopment of the Agriculture Area in Sharjah” – Khorfakkan(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-06) HAMDAN, OMNIASharjah is one of the seven emirates of the UAE witnessing a massive change in terms of economic growth. Since the formation of the UAE in 1971, the government has developed residential neighborhoods to accommodate the growing needs of Emirati households. In the cities, it is not an affair of bricks and mortar to improve the standards and quality of residential neighborhoods. Gratification of humans is achieved via various characteristics that involve exciting opportunities, transportation, patterns of land use, public spaces quality, population and convenience in access to all the necessitates, and most importantly the fit with predominant cultural values and beliefs. This research is a revitalization study of the area behind Souq Al Sharq in Khorfakkan. Using the behavioral mapping technique, along with face-to-face structured interviews with residents and survey, the study analyzed how the public areas in the selected case-study location in khorfakkan are used by residents. Most critical is the finding that there is limited use of public areas, hence a low level of social interaction, in the area studied. Based on the reasons given by the interviewees for the limited use of public areas, this study concluded by making specific design and policy suggestions that khorfakkan municipality can consider, to encourage residents to make the most use of the public areas, which the Department of Town Planning and Survey invests in to promote life for citizens full of quality and standards. Sustainable development in the environment involves energy sources of renewable and non-renewable along with plant, human, animal fertilizer, pesticides and components of air. Urban planners are mostly the only specialties who consider all the factors for the sake of planning and management to be sustainable. The revitalization plan of the site is based on sustainable urban development that considers most of sustainability aspects. Its aims are promoting walkability, save energy, preserve native plants existed in the area and enhance social interaction. ItemHolistic Transitional Approach of Humanitarian Shelters Through The Implementation of Adaptable Design Strategies.(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-06) ALSHALABI, WASEEMThe issue of forcibly displaced portions of a population has become an emerging global trend that is driven by significantly increased numbers of displaced people. This is caused by increases in natural disasters due to global warming, war, and other conflicts. It is also driven by the growing average displacement time (ADT) due to a decline in the durable solutions available due to widespread insecurity, ongoing conflicts, small numbers being accepted for population resettlement, and the struggle of host communities in the integration of displaced populations. In addition to this, the most recent movement restrictions and the suspension of some solution programmes due to the COVID 19 pandemic, coupled with poor performance of provided sheltering solutions, ineffective humanitarian response, and recovery delays, exasperated the effect it has had on the displaced population, host communities, and their environment. Whilst the aim of international community to provide some relief in this area is not new, there has been renewed efforts to try to link relief to recovery in an effort to provide more durable solutions and sustainable development. The models that have been suggested and which have evolved over time in order to address this aim include Build Back Better, LRRD (linking relief, rehabilitation and development), and the concept of Early Recovery. However, many researchers have identified a gap between the international aim to effective transition, and the inefficient implementation in reality, as the process tends to divide the humanitarian response into separate stages due to the different nature, tools, and aims of each stage. Moreover, rigid solutions lack the required adaptable capacity to allow a smooth transit to recovery and sustainable development. This causes multiple and repeatable humanitarian efforts and results in increased waste, costs and time. This escalates the unwelcomed results and environmental impacts and fails in achieving population recovery, community resilience and self-reliance. Therefore, this research has investigated the alternative Humanitarian Sheltering Response (HSR) approaches and solutions. The overall aim is to provide recommendations that would lead to an increase in the adaptable capacity of the sheltering solutions and enhance the transition capability of the HSR. A literature review has been conducted which discusses the provision of adequate shelter as a human right, and specifies the adequacy means, the terminologies of the different sheltering solutions, and the different approaches of response. Additionally, it identifies the characteristics of adaptable design strategies (ADS) for adaptable shelters, and its correlated principle panels. Furthermore, an extensive review has been carried out on more than 43 projects, case studies, and solutions , both existing and novel, from a variety of trusted resources such as the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) and IFRC (The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) reports, global shelter clusters, shelter projects, and shelter centers. All of these different climate conditions, response stages, vulnerability levels and crisis types. This was done in order initiate a reliable and holistic case study to avoid obtaining biased results. The reviewed case studies have been categorised according to the type/nature of the solutions and the specified solutions terminologies. The categorised solutions have been evaluated using a pros and cons list for each category as a logical decision-making tool against the specified evaluation themes that are specified in the literature review. They were then compared to each other using a strength and weakness comparison table. The table shows that there is no single sheltering solution that can be considered appropriate for the whole life span of the displacement and shows a clear difference in the strengths and weaknesses of the response between global and local solutions. Global solutions are more likely to be suitable for the relief aim of a response and local solutions are more likely to be suitable in achieving the aim of early recovery and sustainable development. This result highlights the importance of a transitional approach in providing more adaptable sheltering solutions. As a result, further investigation was carried out to identify the potential transition enablers of adaptable shelters from the reviewed case studies. As a direct result of this, ERD (Entity relationships diagrams) was used as a data analysis tool which uses a logical hierarchy flow chart to graphically represent how entities relate to each other. This helps to determine their potential role in the transitional process. Thirteen ERDs have been created that present two different types of transition - hybrid transition and integrated transition. It also identifies the self-supported BUR (Build, upgrade, and repair) as a key transition enabler. In addition to this, extended lifespan, liable structure, technical ease, LAMs (locally available materials), and local building skills and training are identified as core enablers and additional enablers that help to expand the adaptable capacity of the shelters as the following: Ease of dismantled & reassemble, transportable, expandable designs, and the integration of the renewables & passive strategies. Additionally, a further 28 sub-enablers have been identified. Based on that, an integrated aim model (IRRD Model) of relief, early recovery, and sustainable development has been proposed and visualised. The model shows that all stages are related to each other and allows for the understanding that each stage of response is part of the other stages, all whilst focusing on the purpose of each stage. It also prepares the groundwork for the purpose of other stages. Additionally, it does consider the potential for alteration in the process due to the varied people and circumstances and defines the targets for vulnerability reduction, adequacy enhancements and self reliance strengthening through the transition process. This integrated aim requires a transitional approach (hybrid and/or integrated) with adaptable sheltering solutions and its ADS characteristics to maximise the adaptable capacity of the proposed sheltering solutions to the status of transition and use the transition enablers to facilitate the smooth transition of the adaptable shelter solutions within the proposed holistic approach of HSR. ItemEnhancing the Indoor Lighting Quality of U.A.E Museums A Case Study of Louvre Abu Dhabi(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-12) AZMY, AKRAMThe role of museums is to conserve and protect history. Over the years, the public perception of museums has greatly improved due to a popular spread of awareness and appreciation of history and culture. This study will focus on museums from a sustainable design perspective. The primary relationship between sustainability and museums is related to the ideas of preservation and protection. This is based on the meaning of sustainability, which is the concept of preserving the environment from any harmful or unwanted impact. This is closely linked to the main aim of museums to preserve history from being damaged or wrecked. Furthermore, museums play a significant role in spreading the concept and awareness of sustainability, both through design and through exhibited items. The research will mainly focus on the indoor quality of the museum, by focusing on lighting. Museum lighting is the main element of the story-telling process of the museum. Lighting in museums plays an essential role in giving the visitors the true experience of their surroundings. Additionally, in a museum, visitors are expected to interact with, see, and experience the space and objects, and without optimal lighting, this experience would be impossible. This paper will use a case study to analyze these topics related to lighting and sustainability. The selected case study is located in the United Arab Emirates, specifically in Abu Dhabi. The Louvre Abu Dhabi is considered to be one of the most important museums in the U.A.E. This case was chosen for consideration due to this particular museum’s high potential for impact on the public an also for the sophistication of its design. The author was intrigued to study all of the aspects related to the design of the Louvre Abu Dhabi and to analyze whether there could be any enhancements that could help develop the museum. This research focused on analyzing different data using multiple methods and techniques. The use of survey data was an important method to determine users' perspectives and perceptions. Another important method was the use of simulation programs to come up with accurate results that would benefit the objective of the paper. ItemThe Impact of Street Canyon Geometry on Microclimate and Outdoor Thermal Comfort - The Case of "Damac Hills 2" Community(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-03) SHAMLOULI, MOHAMMAD MAHERAlthough urban designers and planners have been trying to provide liveable, walkable and healthy neighbourhoods, outdoor thermal condition has been a challenging issue for them as cities and communities are heating up nowadays due to UHI and global warming, making outdoor daily activities challenging especially in hot climate countries. Researchers have been investigating different strategies to enhance microclimate using street canyon geometry and many researches have been conducted about applying these strategies in different parts of the world. This dissertation aims to investigate the impact of street canyon ratio and street canyon orientation on microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort to find the ideal aspect ratio and orientation in terms of enhancing wind velocity, solar radiation and thermal comfort for local streets in residential communities that are located in Dubai. In order to achieve this goal, computer simulation models using Ladybug and Eddy3D plugins were created and applied for the case study and another 8 scenarios were proposed which include different street orientations and canyon ratios. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted to validate the created simulation models’ results. The research has achieved several results including the best aspect ratio and orientation among the proposed scenarios in terms of MRT and wind velocity. Additionally, the street with a high canyon ratio oriented close to the north was found to experience the lowest average MRT while the street which was oriented in parallel to the wind direction with a high aspect ratio experienced the highest maximum wind velocity. The results of this research will help urban planners and designers to design thermally comfort communities, as well as develop street design guidelines. ItemA Study for Energy Consumption patterns and Carbon Dioxide emissions for Residential Building in Dubai(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2011-12) AL SHEHHI, FATEMA AHMEDThe climate is changing and recent years show that the earth is warming up, sea level is rising and carbon dioxide (CO2) increasing as well. Human activities are considered as part of climate change due to the amounts of greenhouse gases emitted by these activities to the atmosphere. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concludes that “Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased nearly 30%...and nitrous oxide…risen by about 15%. These increases have enhanced the heat-trapping capability of the earth’s atmosphere.” Globally, energy consumption increased and as per IEA (2010), the total world energy used by sector is as follows: 28% for the industry sector, 27% for the transport sector, and 36% for the residential and service sector. Locally, as per the Annual Statistical Report for Electricity and Water (2010), the total gross generating capacity increased by 5967 MW from 2004 to 2009. Statistically, studies for The Dubai Statistics Center (2009) have indicated that most energy consumption is located in the Commercial sector. Mainly, it accounts for 43% of the overall Dubai energy consumption, being the rest divided between the Residential sector (30%), Industry (9%), and another type (18%). Moreover, research by The UAE Ecological Footprint Initiative Summary Report 2007-2010, 2011) shows that the household sector was the major contributor in the UAE’s Footprint which is responsible for 57%. The purpose of this research is to investigate energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from the residential sector in Dubai. Also, to find out the influence factors on the energy consumption for the residential buildings. The investigated residences were located in eight different locations along the Emirate of Dubai. Questionnaire survey methodology is to be used for this investigation and the questionnaire survey is structured in a way that is to be used as data for the household profile in Dubai in particular and in UAE in general. It's revealed building characteristics and household characteristics in the energy use in addition to the influence of households’ lifestyle on energy consumption. The questionnaire also covered white goods items, home entertainment items, computer and peripheral items, air-conditioners, and lighting. More than 200 hard copy questionnaires were distributed to the selected area, in addition to the electronic copy distributed to relatives, friends, Colleagues, and others. Questionnaire results were based on surveys of 95 households for different types of residences; villas, detached houses, Arabic houses, and apartments in different locations. The research result outlines the key drivers that impacts on energy consumption. According to the results; Major electricity-consuming items were air-conditioners, lighting, and refrigerators. Furthermore, consumers' behavior is the most important issue of energy consumption. This impacts of that energy which is particularly fossil-fuel-generated electricity on carbon released to the atmosphere. The dissection report ends with a section for recommendation of efforts, such as detailed survey, policy and regulation, intended to influence building energy use. Recommended courses of action from BUID to the residential leaders, students. The holistic and integrated approach to the research objective, guided by Systems thinking and ecological design, capacities actors at three different levels to pro-Actively implement end-use energy efficiency. ItemMethodologies of Achieving Energy-Plus Building through Deep Investigation in The Building Energy Performance: Case Study of Existing Multipurpose Building in Dubai, UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-11) ABUFAZA’, BILAL ADNANThe inevitable relation between population and energy demand is deriving the humanity for thinking about safe sources to cover their energy needs especially after the global warming raised during the last decades resulted from the reliance on depleting the fossil fuel. Numerous number of initiatives along with promising solutions have been observed for reduction energy consumption and find alternative clean energy. Energy-Plus Building as one of the latest trends in the sustainable transformation and based on shifting the building from energy consumer to producer with extra energy yield during specific period was investigated with exploring the potentials and obstacles of applying the same in UAE. A multipurpose building in UAE was the chosen case study where the best methodology applied through IES-VE software simulation, starting from enhancing building envelops materials mainly on the roof to reach the desired U-Value. Moving forward for exploring the best PV orientation, inclination and type which is south, 25° and monocrystalline respectively, the required PV panels that can cover the beak day demand proposed on the roof and parking area. The excessive produced energy and utility bills savings contributes in reducing the payback period for the transformation process to less than five years. ItemPhotovoltaic Facades: Key to the Concept of Zero Energy Buildings(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-09) KAMPADAM, MATHEW GEORGEBuildings around the globe consume almost 40 % of energy, and building operations are based on non-renewable sources of energy, e.g., ventilation, air conditioning, electricity, heating, which contributes to over 33% of greenhouse gases. To sustain our future generations from the adverse effects of greenhouse gases, buildings hold a major potential. If a building greatly reduces energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies-thus, that building can be termed as zero energy building. To achieve a zero building concept, the building should be designed to reduce energy consumption to a minimum. The building should be able to produce energy on itself. To achieve the aim of this concept, building envelope’s, facades are the ultimate potential key in an envelope which will lead to minimum energy consumption and also energy production with the help of photovoltaic facades Building-integrated Photovoltaic facades are an important solution proposal. However, its implementation is accompanied by significant challenges in terms of the complexity of processes and technologies involved and the adaptability of these solutions to different geographical areas with particular climatic conditions. This research aims to assess the viability of the implementation of photovoltaic facades in commercial and residential projects. The viability will be studied in terms of the overall savings in the power usage, economic feasibility, and detailed techno-commercial study and comparison with the conventional façade methods. The objective of the study of study are: • Energy production details. • Impacts on the cost in comparison with electrical power consumption. • Possible aesthetics of the photovoltaic facades. • Research & developments in building design for the maximum application of the photovoltaic facades. • Commercial study & comparisons between conventional façade system & photovoltaic façade system. • A detailed study in terms of the life span and indirect benefits. • Report on the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to electric power usage. The methodology for researching photovoltaic facades in terms of different aspects ( commercial, technical, aesthetics) will be carried out per the following steps: • Selecting a prototype model for a commercial and residential building • Evaluate the model climatic properties like temperature, sun orientation. • Creating a base model with conventional façade systems. • Evaluating the general energy consumption with conventional facades. • Development of the same model now with integrated photovoltaic façade systems, keeping following factors:- i. Tilted façade: Good idea to increase yield while paying attention to overheating ii. Where to integrate. In vision and no vision. If transparent, what is required, g-factor, v, etc.… iii. Shadows often exist, study to carry iv. Determine zones not allocable to PV: near doors, trees, details, terraces … v. Insulated modules are not back-ventilated vi. Where and how are the wiring ways going inside the building? Construction details. • Detailed cost analysis. ItemInvestigating the Impact of Space Layout on the Energy Performance and Lighting Strategies – A Case Study of a Private School in the UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-10) MALIHA, AZRASustainable development of the built environment is one of the major focuses in the modern world. However, the building sectors consume a huge amount of energy globally, as a result, environmental managers are constantly working towards solving this issue. Over the past few years, UAE has been the home for numerous impactful movements towards sustainability and environmental conservation. But being a country with extremely hot summers dominating the climate, UAE’s building sectors are facing immense challenges. Schools and educational buildings are a major part of the country’s building sector, with a growing number of schools are built every year. Despite several studies being published on schools and their energy performances, a knowledge gap remains on how early design decisions on space layouts can impact the final energy performance. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of space layout on daylight and energy performance of UAE schools. For this purpose, a private school in Al Ain city is selected as a case study. Considering this as the base case, seven alternative layouts of the selected school are generated using the Autodesk Revit space planning tool. Additionally, Revit and DIALux evo are used as simulation tools to simulate the daylighting performances, whereas IES VE is used for energy simulation. The computer simulations are performed in two phases; firstly, the daylight and annual energy performances are simulated. The result of this first phase determined the best layout, which exhibits a 6.9% reduction in total annual energy consumption compared to the base case. Next, this best layout is further improved and an additional reduction of 1.65% on annual energy consumption is recorded. The results of the simulations reveal that the design of a space layout and the allocation of different spaces have direct impacts on the energy performance of school buildings. Finally, the results conclude that it is important to balance the daylight and cooling load performances in order to achieve the maximum reduction in energy consumption. This study provides valuable data on the significance of space layouts and their appropriate analysis in the early stages of design. ItemApplying Passive Design Strategies to Achieve Energy Efficient Mosque in UAE: The Case of Uptown Mirdif Mosque(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-09) ALKHALESI, SAREH JAVADEnergy and electricity have become a basic and necessary need that must be available in any place where the population is located, especially to use air-conditioning devices to obtain a comfortable thermal environment in hot and humid areas such as the United Arab Emirates. Burning fossil fuels to produce energy, as the percentage of carbon emissions increased, which is one of the types of greenhouse gases that lead to environmental pollution and global warming. Therefore, it was necessary to search and find solutions that help reduce energy consumption and alternative solutions to produce energy from clean sources. Many studies have been conducted to search for solutions and strategies that contribute to reducing energy consumption. This research aims to help build sustainable mosques that consume the least possible amount of energy while maintaining a comfortable indoor thermal environment for worshipers. By clarifying and knowing some of the different passive design strategies that can be used in building mosques such as thermal insulations, glazing, shadings, green roofs and the production of clean energy using solar panels. This research helps to know the different types and possibilities for each strategy, evaluate these strategies and types, and know their efficiency in reducing the energy consumption of the building, especially in an atmosphere similar to that of the UAE, using the IES-VE simulation program. Then a comparison was made between the strategies and their types to find out which of them are more efficient and capable of reducing building energy consumption, as the results showed that thermal insulation is the most efficient strategy than other strategies. ItemAssessment of the Effectiveness of the Double Skin Facades (DSFs) Configurations on Enhancing the Energy Performance of Multi-Used Building in Hot-Arid Climate The Case in Al-Ain City-UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-10) TOBEISHAT, REEMA A.Implementation of double-skin facades DSFs is a sustainable technical solution for enhancing energy performance of building, but the climatic conditions could affect the DSF performance. Al-Ain city-UAE is a hot-arid climate zone and characterized by higher solar gains which play a key role in the DSF performance. In this work, the parametric study was carried out to assess the impact of DSF geometry, cavity depth, glazing properties, openings vents, shading devices SDs and air flow mode in enhancing energy performance and thermal comfort. A multi-used building (commercial and residential) in Al Ain city was selected as a reference base case model for this study. Four -types of ventilated DSFs were applied in the reference building under a wide range of strategies and scenarios based on modifying parametric study of (Cavity width, glazing properties, solar shading devices SDs positions), through replacing the conventional building wall of reference case with DSF system. Different strategies were adopted to analyze the energy performance (total annual cooling loads and total annual electricity consumption) of the building. This work is based on numerical simulation methodology, the IES-VE software tool was utilized to perform the simulation of total energy consumption. IES-VE tool is connected to different applications based on thermal analysis and energy consumption such as, MacroFlo and MicroFlo-CFD used to assess and predict the optimal type and parameter, based on measuring the efficient energy performance, air flow-rate, and air velocity of an integrated base building with DSF types. CFD application was used to simulate the airflow behavior with the air cavity and predicting the influence of DSF in promoting energy performance. To identify the optimum configurations among the four types of natural ventilated DSFs system with External Air Curtin (EAC) mode; the 4 -types of DSFs based on partitioning cavity (Box-Window, Shaft-Box, Corridor and Multi-Story facade) were investigated and compared in this work. The final findings found that the most effective parameter in reduction cooling loads is opening size area, glazing properties, cavity width, airflow within cavity, and shading devices SDs in sequence. The most optimal case was Multi-Storey façade achieving about 10.30% reduction in cooling loads in comparison to the reference base. Overall, all types of DSFs achieved efficient performance in reduction the total annual cooling loads and total annual electricity consumption. In comparing with reference traditional building envelope. The target of this study is to investigate the thermal performance and the effectiveness of DSFs systems to improve the building energy efficiency, to afford a comparison and evaluation of the tested types of DSFs, and to determine the optimal design of the four DSF cases in dealing with thermal performance under hot-arid climate. ItemSustainable urban development strategies to enhance outdoor thermal comfort and promote walkability in the United Arab Emirates(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-10) ALTENEIJI, AHMED SALIM AHMED SAIFThermal comfort has a variety of implications for how people act in their built environment, including their mobility options. In many places, particularly those prone to severe weather, trip time and distance are less significant than the outside thermal. Accordingly, Outdoor comfort is necessary when it comes to encouraging individuals to walk, bike, or take any other form of sustainable transportation. The thesis argues that there is lack of a wider framework that evaluates numerous design iterations in terms of comfort and walkability at the same time is mostly due to a lack of adequate connectivity between the two concepts. As such, the fundamental goal of this research is to create a link between outdoor thermal comfort and walkability by examining how various sustainable design options for increasing outdoor thermal comfort may be codified to also increase walkability. The methodology used in this study can address both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the problem while also allowing for the examination of several design iterations. The research used an integrated methodology that combined field survey and simulation, allowing the researcher to analyse the topic holistically and critically while studying each parameter in its own context. Field survey was employed in this research to better understand people's behaviour under various conditions, while simulation gave a complete control for the researcher to analyse the research problem parametrically. The study assessed people's thermal perception and level of comfort through a field survey and a thermal walk experiment. The effect of urban morphology on street orientation and H/W aspect ratio is then investigated parametrically utilizing the Rhino/Grasshopper interface in conjunction with the ladybug tools plugin. According to the findings of the field investigation, pedestrians in the UAE are most comfortable when the outdoor air temperature is between 25 and 30 degrees. While the thermal walk experiment demonstrated that going outdoors in the summer can raise the skin's temperature by up to two degrees. Moreover, individuals can walk less than 10 min in summertime before the feel very uncomfortable. while this duration significantly increases if the street is shaded. The result if simulations shows that street orientation and H/W aspect ratio can contribute to enhancement of 2 °C. In the case study NW-SE street orientation achieved the best result and the current H/W aspect ratio which is around 4.2.