Overview of Concrete Deterioration Due to Sulphate Attack and Comparison of Its Requirements in International Codes

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Any material or geometric property change that has an impact on structural performance is known as structural deterioration. Although this phenomenon is gradual, if it is not evaluated and fixed in a timely manner, it will have a severe impact on the structure and, in some historical occasions, may result in collapse. Deterioration has a variety of causes and mechanisms. Some are regarded as external, such as the environment, which is critical in areas with tough climate conditions, as the Arab Gulf, where temperatures and humidity are high, another factor is the low quality of the materials and poor craftsmanship. Depending on the type of materials used in the structure and the environment in which it is created, several precaution approaches for structural degradation may be adapted. Sulphate attack is one of the most widespread deteriorating mechanisms; this type of chemical damage can result in cracks, spalling, and disintegration of the structure, diminishing its strength. This paper presents a thorough investigation of this degrading agent, including its causes, effects, international code provisions, as well as recent studies on the subject with a focus on the Arab Gulf Countries. The outcomes of this study demonstrated that this phenomenon, with its various mechanisms, has a negative impact on structures. Despite the distribution of sulphates in the Gulf, the existence of chloride and the precautionary measures taken successfully limited their impact on structures.
This open access book presents contributions on a wide range of scientific areas originating from the BUiD Doctoral Research Conference (BDRC 2022)
sulphate attack, chemical reaction, harsh environment, ettringite, physical attack
Al-Haddad, D.B., Jokhio, G.A., Tair, A.A. (2023). Overview of Concrete Deterioration Due to Sulphate Attack and Comparison of Its Requirements in International Codes. In: Al Marri, K., Mir, F., David, S., Aljuboori, A. (eds) BUiD Doctoral Research Conference 2022. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 320. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-27462-6_19