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Item21st Century Warfare: How Information Technology Has Fundamentally Changed Global Warfare - An Analysis of Insurgencies’ Use of IT(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2018-11) FIKRI, MOHAMMAD NADER MOHAMMAD ABDULLAHThis paper utilizes a qualitative approach to provide a case study analysis of the rising use of technology by insurgents. Examining the literature and making a comparative analysis of the trends of recent years allowed the researcher to come to the conclusion of the rising necessity of cybersecurity in contemporary warfare. A quantitative approach in such a case would have been limited due to the lack of reliable statistics available as well as the more sterile nature of results it would provide. The 21st century has seen a change in the type of warfare waged globally. Whereas the 20th century was characterized by decolonization and states warring against one another, the 21st century has witnessed a shift in global warfare where non-state actors such as radical groups are gaining momentum and causing significant mayhem. The accessibility of radical groups to wage war on a global level has been exacerbated in recent years by the widespread usage of information technology on an individual level and the resulting compression of time and space. Both these factors, the rise of non-state actors and the usage of information technology, has disrupted the way global warfare is waged. This dissertation focuses on examining the ways in which global security in the 21st century has changed due to insurgents’ access to information technology. By focusing heavily on the available literature and findings conducted of the insurgents in Iraq and Syria, this research aims to provide recommendations on the ways in which governments must now reassess their security needs by taking into account the changes in 21st century information technology. Information technology is a double-edged sword; the abuse of it by the wrong hands can cause global chaos, however, it is also a fundamentally important tool in the counterterrorism effort as well. As technology continues to advance and as social networks and IT equipment become more accessible to individuals, a major portion of global antiterrorism efforts will shift to the digital sphere. After reviewing the findings from literature and references of insurgents’ usage of IT, it became clear that social media was a catalyst for the rapid spread of their ideology and propaganda. Social media networks were used both to brainwash the public and recruit new members. Government websites and databases were hacked by cyberattacks and sensitive information made public. These findings from the literature review conducted; demonstrated that they had a well developed, deeply-strategized IT and media strategy and that when they emerged globally seemingly overnight, the world was taken aback and governments were unprepared with how to deal with their digital prowess. This has brought to light the importance of a globally concerted effort to give cyberterrorism the importance it deserves in counterterrorism efforts. Item3- DIMENSIONAL CONCRETE PRINTING TECHNOLOGY(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-01) ABDULJAWAD, NORAN AMERThe structural engineers are always in a challenge between the responsibility for the people life and the development in the structural engineering sector, the long spans or the height of the buildings also the modern design that needs flexibility required from the structural engineer to discover new ideas and seek for a new solution to break the limitation of the traditionally used manufacturing processes of the concrete, and move to a new page which is a smart structure-based new technology, such as 3D concrete printing, that will help the structural engineer and the construction sector to be more creative. Taking under consideration that every complex structure gives complex loads and dynamic nature, in addition to that it will increase time and cost which is very critical points in the construction stage. The present paper reviews all the properties, features, advantages, and disadvantages of 3D printing will be discussed with approval. This dissertation or thesis is surveying research, the type of the survey is a questionnaire, it was done online by using SurveyMonkey or Google Forms, and the design of the question was developed and selected carefully which includes a critical point about 3D printing, the questions were distributed between engineers with different engineering background, like civil engineers, structural engineers, MSc. in structural engineering, PhD. in structural engineering, and researchers. And it was targeting engineers in different locations and in different fields. This survey research includes questions that are divided into different sections. The types of the questions are closed-ended questions and that means quantitative research which provides numerical data that can be statistically analyzed to find correlation, trends, patterns. On the other hand, the result of the responses is static analysis, usually using computer programs like SPSS, Stata, or Excel. Knowing that survey results are organized and discussed in the conclusion. ItemAchieving Sustainable Outdoor Thermal Comfort in the American University of Sharjah Campus(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2016-09) AL KHAWAJA, SARAH JAMALThere are many factors that impact and influence the success of an urban space. Numerous physical and social environment components and location of the given space in the city are all key components that play part. This study however, mainly focuses on one physical environmental aspect known as the thermal environment. Thermal environments are components of physical environments that dictate the human thermal comfort. The control of this comfort is conducted through exchange of energy between the body and its consequent surroundings, and it can generally be stated that it exists in the circumstance that a body can readily sustain a constant and deep temperature of approximately 37°C. Therefore, thermal comfort can be defined as the relationship between the thermal condition and an individual’s awareness of warmth that makes the impression. The study will carry out a comprehensive research on the layout of the American University of Sharjah (AUS) campus in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Multiple data categories will be collected from the campus users through a series of surveys and interviews to obtain an understanding of the site conditions and their comfort levels. Human thermal comfort is an environmental quality that is directly impacted by the outdoor conditions of the university’s campus. It is among some of the most affected qualities of the environment in the urban outdoors. Since the microclimate of AUS is hot humid, the thermal adaptation of the university’s occupants is quite challenging due to exposure to variation air temperatures. Despite the control the outdoor thermal environment being difficult, there is a need to avail thermal comfortable conditions, which are able to cater for the outdoor activities such as walkability, driving, parking, greenery, shades, water features among others. This study is based on investigating the problem of lack of sufficient thermal conditions to facilitate comfort amongst the University’s occupants. It’s aimed at solving this problem by recommending new improvised design elements for the campus’ thermal adaptation through creating areas with sufficient shades as well as outdoor sophisticated space planning. ItemAchieving sustainable regeneration and walkable communities through investigation of different urban configurations in Dubai, UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2017-10) ALMULLA, MOHAMMEDOne of the major challenges facing urban planners in Dubai is the rapid growth of population. New developments were constructed within the last few years which caused the urban sprawl to reach the edge of the city. In this research, historical contend and sustainability factors were analysed to achieve sustainable regeneration within the Central Business District of Dubai along with enhancing walkability in the district through achieving thermal comfort within the urban form. The thermal comfort was analyzed through the simulation of different configuration to analyze the main three parameters which includes air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. ENVI-met modeling was used in this research to simulate the three urban configuration divided into three phases including the following: analysis of building form, analysis of building heights and the analysis of landscaping and vegetation on thermal comfort. Throughout the research it was analyzed that creating wind channel form buildings has the best effect compared to the other proposed form. moreover, uniformed building heights shared similar results while the best height selected was the proposal of different heights in which air temperature was lower than other height configurations. Finally, the best configuration selected within the configuration of landscaping and vegetation was the optimization of grass, trees and water elements which had the lowers air temperature in comparison to the other configurations. It was concluded through the research that there are potentials in enhancing walkability through sustainable regeneration in Dubai. ItemAchieving thermal comfort by applying passive cooling strategies to courtyard houses in Dubai (UAE)(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2014-05) Feroz, Sheikh MehreenA passive design approach is centered upon integrating the microclimatic requests into the design to accomplish advanced comfort levels with lower energy depletion. The purpose of this research was to examine the cooling effect of designated passive parameters on the outdoor air temperature, wind speed , shading, indoor and outdoor daylight of an open courtyard. Numerous variables that demonstrated formerly to improve the outdoor environments were assessed conjointly to achieve the effect that passive design has over outdoor air temperature. The computer simulation was discovered to be the utmost appropriate tool for analysis affording to the resources accessible. Three variables were examined originally, orientation, geometry and vegetation among these the coolest parameter were combined into one scenario titled the enhanced scenario. Two scenarios entitled the existing scenario presents a specific site circumstances and the enhanced scenario conjoining the coolest parameters, were equated and assessed. The NW orientation, the highest geometry of a height to width (H:W) ratio of 1.35, groups of trees and continuous grass were discovered to be the coolest parameters included in the enhanced scenario. The enhanced scenario was then equated to the existing case scenario constructed with NNE orientation, 0.85 H:W ratio and no vegetation which had the higher temperature ranks. The outcomes discovered had a small increase in improvement of the outdoor air temperature owing to the passive principles pertained. The proportional outcomes performance cased a smaller progress among the enhanced scenario and the existing scenario presenting the site conditions of Dubai the villa owed to the assimilation of a these principles only. The outcomes of temperature and wind patterns verified and helped in accepting numerous outdoor performances which are helpful for directing an ecological design for courtyard spaces. One of the foremost conclusions was the reality of a limit to the amount of passive applications to accomplish a substantial enhancement still, an increase in it was achievable. Nevertheless, the performance of the outdoor parameters remains somewhat complicated and impulsive that involves additional exploration. ItemADAPTATION OF BIM WORKFLOW IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING PROJECTS & THE NEED TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL BIM STANDARD(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2020-02) Thomas Thampy, TonyThe Introduction of the concept of BIM into the construction industry, have made significant changes to the working standards and workflow pattern. This thesis examines the said changes in comparison to the traditional working methods in all phases of project starting from pre-concept to demolition with respect to the structural engineering discipline. Case studies are done to check the typical workflow in a BIM environment for structural design. Thus analysing the skills required and deliverables that are to be produced in BIM working environment for optimum workflow. The BIM implementation strategies and the rate of BIM adaptation in 5 selected countries including UAE are analysed. The relation between national BIM standards and the rate of BIM implementation in the respective countries are also evaluated. The current BIM awareness in the UAE is also analysed by a market survey conducted among industry experts in the UAE, focusing on the obstacles for the implementation of a national BIM strategy. The adaptation of the BIM into the structural engineering workflow has shown many improvements in comparison to the traditional workflow such as software interoperability, ease of production of schedules and drawings, 3D representation of reinforcement and other technical data, etc. National mandates and standards in relation to BIM have shown to increase the rate of BIM adaption in respective countries and also achieve a sense of regularity in the construction industry and authority standards. From the market survey conducted, the professionals have expressed the need for similar BIM standardisation in the UAE and also the current obstacles for the same. ItemAdaptive Secure Pipeline for Attacks Detection in Networks with set of Distribution Hosts(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-01) ALSHAMSI, SUROURCurrently, malware continues to represent one of the main computer security threats. It is difficult to have efficient detection systems to precisely separate normal behavior from malicious behavior, based on the analysis of network traffic. This is due to the characteristics of malicious and normal traffic, since normal traffic is very complex, diverse and changing; and malware is also changeable, migrates and hides itself pretending to be normal traffic. In addition, there is a large amount of data to analyze and the detection is required in real time to be useful. It is therefore necessary to have an effective mechanism to detect malware and attacks on the network. In order to benefit from multiple different classifiers, and exploit their strengths, the use of ensembling algorithms arises, which combine the results of the individual classifiers into a final result to achieve greater precision and thus a better result. This can also be applied to cybersecurity problems, in particular to the detection of malware and attacks through the analysis of network traffic, a challenge that we have raised in this thesis. The research work carried out, in relation to attack detection ensemble learning, mainly aims to increase the performance of machine learning algorithms by combining their results. Most of the studies propose the use of some technique, existing ensemble learning or created by the authors, to detect some type of attack in particular and not attacks in general. So far none addresses the use of Threat Intelligence (IT) data in Ensemble Learning algorithms to improve the detection process, nor does it work as a function of time, that is, taking into account what happens on the network in a limited time interval. The objective of this thesis is to propose a methodology to apply ensembling in the detection of infected hosts considering these two aspects. As a function of the proposed objective, ensembling algorithms applicable to network security have been investigated and evaluated, and a methodology for detecting infected PAGE 2 hosts using ensembling has been developed, based on experiments designed and tested with real datasets. This methodology proposes to carry out the process of detecting infected hosts in three phases. These phases are carried out each a certain amount of time. Each of them applies ensembling with different objectives. The first phase is done to classify each network flow belonging to the time window, as malware or normal. The second phase applies it to classify the traffic between an origin and a destination, as malicious or normal, indicating whether it is part of an infection. And finally, the third phase, in order to classify each host as infected or not infected, considering the hosts that originate the communications. The implementation in phases allows us to solve, in each one of them, one aspect of the problem, and in turn take the predictions of the previous phase, which are combined with the analysis of the phase itself to achieve better results. In addition, it implies carrying out the training and testing process in each phase. Since the best model is obtained from training, each time it is performed for a given phase, the model is adjusted to detect new attacks. This represents an advantage over tools based on firm rules or static rules, where you have to know the behavior to add new rules. ItemAdoption of Greywater Reuse Systems in Hotels in Abu Dhabi(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-12) Hammad, AreejAvailability of water resources has become a global issue that is imperative to resolve to achieve sustainable growth for generations to come. Various solutions have been launched to conserve the environment in all its aspects and the availability of clean water is one of the most challenges facing humanity today. The UAE is ranked in the top 10 countries in regards to high baseline of water stress. Innovative approaches need to be taken by authorities, businesses, and people alike to work together to conserve water resources. One such solution is the reuse of treated greywater. Greywater is the effluent from wash basins, showers, laundry, and kitchens. Treating and reusing greywater for purposes of irrigation and toilet flushing could relieve strain on water resources. The study examined the factors that can contribute to greywater adoption in hotels in Abu Dhabi. Abu Dhabi is an attractive destination with 168 hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotel professionals in Abu Dhabi. The survey was designed around the Theory of Planned Behaviour in order to identify the factors that will impact the behaviour in question in this case, greywater adoption. Greywater adoption in existing and new hotels was examined and results were obtained and analyzed using SPSS. The results showed that management perception, government support and risk associated with greywater impacted decisions to adopt greywater in existing hotels while customer perception and government support were the main factors that impacted adoption of greywater in new hotels according to hotel professionals in Abu Dhabi and the conducted statistical analysis. The study concludes by providing recommendations for future research. ItemAdvanced Composites as Reinforcement for Concrete(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-05) Alsamaraie, IbrahimRecently, the demand for building concrete structures reinforced with steel rebars is gradually increasing worldwide. The serviceability of these reinforced concrete structures is affected by multiple factors, one of which is exposure to extreme weather conditions. Deterioration of steel rebars is one of the most common issues caused by the harsh environment's weather. The degradation of concrete structure is mainly driven by steel corrosion. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar is considered an innovative and durable choice rather than conventional steel reinforcement for concrete structures. GFRP bars were classified as an excellent corrosion resistance compared to conventional steel due to their mechanical performance. Several researchers have performed numerous studies out to explore the flexural response of GFRP bars. As a result, it is crucial to establish effective FE models that can be employed to comprehend the essential structural behavior of such systems and the performance under applied loads. The flexural behavior of structural reinforced concrete beam components was presented in this study utilizing 3D ANSYS 21 FEA simulation. This study compares an FE model with experimental findings from previous works and the ACI 440.1 model. Graphical representations were discussed, including the deflection of the mid-span stress-strain relationship. The specimens are rectangular beams that are simply supported and have spans and clear spans of 2.4 m and 2.1 m. A four-point pseudo-static experiment was performed on the samples. The findings indicate that fibre-reinforced composites can be evaluated using ANSYS software with an adjusted model. The difference between FEA model results, experimental tests, and ACI 440.1 theoretical formulas predicting failure loads is within a 10% margin of error. The results have demonstrated the ACI 440.1 code conservatism compared to the remainder of the results obtained from environmental findings or FE simulations. ItemAgent Based Modeling to Optimize Supermarkets Spatial Dimensions(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2019-05) NASIF, MAJDThe purpose of our research is to study the impact of supermarket size and spatial dimensions on crowding. To improve supermarkets layout from the social aspect, to increase the human comfort and reduce crowding. Despite the supermarket is a major part of our life, but there is one undesirable situation that a lot of people suffer from it, which is crowding. It is the situation where the shoppers feel that the supermarket is overloaded with people at certain times. We solved this problem by providing an optimal area range for the supermarket where we reduced the crowding levels dramatically, while avoiding unnecessary increase in space dimensions. We used a simulation methodology, using Massmotion software to create and analyse the proposed scenarios. Two sets of scenarios were tested, one with 1000 shoppers per day and the other with 2000 shoppers per day. It was shown that the area range from 1450 to 1650 square meters is the optimal area of the supermarket. The results shown that an increase in the critical zones, i.e. the fresh produce, pre-prepared zone and the sixth isle of general items, had the major cause in the reduction of congestion cost, journey cost, higher LOS, such as LOS E and F. We learnt how to find the optimal area of the supermarket or any other space with minimal effect on human comfort. Our research finding shows that the uncrowded isles can be 1.3 meters width, but the crowded isles, such as the fresh produce, pre-prepared food area and the sixth isle in the general items, should be larger with minimum 2.7 times the uncrowded zones, i.e. they should have a width of 3.6 meters, as shown in the seventh scenario. ItemAircraft wing flutter control(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2013-06) Tavalla, Sahar SadatThis research includes the design of a multivariable control system for aircraft wings. Two objectives are desired. The first is to control the vibrational problem for low-speed flight by applying a feedback control strategy. The second goal is to demonstrate that the controller for this wing assembly dissipates the least energy by comparing an alternative controller design technique. Simple procedures using established methods relating the wing vibrational problems, are outlined. The control strategies invoked using a simplified flutter dynamic model. A compensator designed to provide enhanced flutter suppression was employed. The transient performance of the system was computed for various flight velocities. Comparison of the energy dissipation for the gain ratios investigated was obtained. Numerical simulation was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach advocated. ItemALNER: ARABIC LOCATION NAMED ENTITIES(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-10) KADDOURA, HAITHAM MOHAMADThis dissertation describes a rule based approach carried out to determine Location Named Entities in Arabic. ALNER, an Arabic Location Named Entities Recognition system, implements the rule based approach and is introduced in this thesis. This research is the first of its type to specialize in Location NER as a stand-alone system from other named entity types. Such dedication on one named entities helps in investigating the performance of comprehensive NER systems. The Named Entity Recognition (NER) task has great influence on various Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications (e.g. Information Retrieval, Question Answering, etc.). Various research works conducted toward building language independent NER systems that will work on any language but very limited work has been done for NER systems to work with Arabic language. It is known that Arabic language has complex morphology as a language which makes the NER task more difficult. Readers will find an overview about the Arabic language morphology and how it is different from other languages. We also highlighted the key challenges in Arabic language for the NER task. In addition, overall presentation about previous work toward Arabic NER is presented. ALNER system using rule-based approach was evaluated and achieved accuracy of 87.27% and further investigation was conducted to study per module effectiveness and contribution. ItemAlternative Facades: Assessment of Building Integrated Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Glazing— Energy Benefits and Future Potentials in Office Building in UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-12) Katanbafnasab, MohammadWith the decline of conventional fossil fuels and the rapid growth of human population, the importance of curbing our energy consumption and reducing our dangerous emissions is now more obvious than ever. Since buildings are one of the top consumers of energy, it is not surprising that many designers, engineers, and architects are starting to address the significance of the building envelope in minimizing energy demands especially in office buildings. While many new alternative façades offer such energy saving benefits, the use of two particular technologies has not been studied enough in the gulf region. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) and Electrochromic (EC) glazing are perhaps also more important because the potential of both of these technologies is very closely related to the availability of sunshine, which is very abundant in this region. Thus, the aim of this research was to explore the energy benefits and future potential of these two systems within the climatic conditions of the city of Abu Dhabi. A computer energy modeling program was used to assess the energy performance, mainly the reductions in HVAC and lighting, of each system compared to a base case scenario for south, east, west, and north facing facades. Additionally, an economic analysis explored the feasibility of applications of these systems within Abu Dhabi’s construction industry. The result of this research showed that the BIPV is most advantageous on the south façade while the EC glazing performs best on the north facing windows. The BIPV model achieved a maximum energy consumption reduction of about 20.66%, 16.69%, 16.86%, and 1.35% for the south, east, west and north orientation, respectively against the base case model. On the other hand, the EC glazing model had much less benefit against the base case model with ‐2.86%, 1.35%, 0.89%, and 7.41% energy savings for the same orientations, respectively. The increase in glass shading coefficient increased the energy savings (15%) in the BIPV model against the base case. Similarly, the EC glazing showed significant improvement in energy savings (11.17%) over the base case which used higher shading coefficient. Moreover, the change in sensor location from 2m to 4m increased the energy savings for both cases, although the change was very marginal compared to the change of the glass properties. The results of the economic analysis showed that due to high capital cost and low cost of electricity, neither system is currently feasible for investment. However, with future advances in each system and more efficient designs, the pay back periods would become tangible and therefore yield better performances. In conclusion, using an automated light control system with dimming for both models, compared against the standard on‐off lighting mechanism in the base case, the BIPV proves to have a higher energy saving potential than the EC glazing. If these two technologies were to be combined, the best configuration would be to install BIPV on the East, South, and West façade, while the EC glazing is used on the North façade. ItemANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE ACTION OF PRECAST HOLLOW CORE SLABS AND CAST IN PLACE MESH REINFORCED CONCRETE TOPPING(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2019-09) Omer, SajjadConsidering composite action of hollow core slab with cast in place mesh reinforced concrete topping helps to provide longer hollow core slabs and reduces the overall weight of the structure. Research has shown that composite action normally can be attained through studs or other connecting elements from the bottom element but for hollow core slabs the roughness of the top surface is enough to attain the composite action. This study aims to analyze the composite action of hollow core slabs made of ELEMATIC sections with thicknesses 150mm and 265mm with cast in place mesh reinforced topping. The thickness of topping was considered as 65mm for 150mm thick hollow core slab and 70mm for 265mm thick hollow core slabs. A load test setup was made for both 150mm thick hollow core slab and 265mm thick hollow core slab which mirrored the actual site condition. The connecting reinforcements were provided as per normal practice and the supports were considered as simply supported after which the topping was setup with the wire mesh and the concrete poured. Readings from the three gauges below the hollow core slabs were recorded at 0% loading, 25% loading, 50% loading, 75% loading, 100% loading, 100% sustained loading and 0% released load condition after 24 hours. For 150mm thick hollow core slabs, 0.29mm was the deflection for 100% sustained loading and for 265mm thick hollow core slabs, 3.36mm was the deflection for 100% sustained loading. These two values are way less than the actual estimated values. The results indicate that composite actions are valid for uncracked hollow core slab sections considered in the tests. Further investigations can confirm the composite action for other hollow core slab sections and also for section which are cracked ItemAn Analysis of the Forces Influencing the Implementation of Artificial Intelligence in the Intellectual Property Sector in UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-06) AL YAZEEDI, ABDULLA MOHAMEDThe study at hand considers the way in which the potential for the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasing in the current paradigm of social and economic change. This paper will consider the various dimensions of this proposed move of automating government services as witnessed through the signing of Memorandum with the South Korean government who will help to facilitate this move. Thus, the core aim is to uncover the various ways in which AI integration into the Intellectual Property mechanisms in UAE can cause massive shifts in terms of intellectual property management and innovation in general. The research objectives sought to identify the forces that will drive or restrain the implementation of Artificial Intelligence in the Intellectual Property Sector. This research used the force field analysis method to identify the forces using a questionnaire specifically for the users of IP services and relied on personal interviews with selected employees within the IP department. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that the integration of AI into IP management has the potential to improve efficiency of dealing with applications and improving the overall rapidity with which applications are processed, it also revealed cultural and traditional methods of management are seen as the restraining forces whereas the driving forces were the continued support from the government to include AI into the workplaces and aim of having a technological skilled employee. Thus, this study has the potential of revealing important factors that needed to be addressed before the implementation of AI in an organization. Moreover, the study will also consider the intricate possibilities that are apparent in case of developing and furthering innovation potential in the country, specifically through the various ways in which AI can enable easier and more systematic application processing. ItemAn Analysis of Thermal Comfort at the School Outdoor Spaces: A Case Study of the American School of Creative Science, Dubai, UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2022-06) ABU-QULBAIN, LANAOutdoor school spaces are significant spaces which, regardless of a child’s residential area, provide great opportunity for outdoor space exploration leading to overall enhancement to the students’ wellbeing. This paper analyzes the outdoor school spaces of a school in Dubai to optimize its outdoor school spaces and ensure their thermal comfort. To achieve this aim, and using mixed methodology approach of survey, field observation, workshops and ENVI-Met V5.3 software simulation, the initial school outdoor spaces were analyzed and then enhanced by means of several proposed heat mitigation strategies. The enhanced outcome was evaluated against the initial one, using PET (physiological equivalent temperature), revealing that shade separately had the highest impact on its corresponding location with a decrease of up to 16% in PET, but no decrease to the overall PET of the microclimate. Additionally, the addition of vegetation alone had an impact on the microclimate decreasing it by 5%. Thus, combining the strategies of vegetation, shade, green facades/roofs and small water features resulted in 5% to 25% reduction in PET depending on the corresponding location being analyzed. The enhancements also led to reduction in the building energy flux, by up to 5%. The results obtained provide insight and guidelines for school designers and school board members on how to evaluate and enhance the school outdoor spaces to ensure they are thermally comfortable. ItemAnalyzing the structural cost, performance, and flexibility in the terminal design of Mumbai Airport(The British University in Dubai, 2018-09) ZAMA, SYED MUDASSIR USThe recent growth in the aviation industry has led to the highest necessity for the development in designing the airports. Statistics are available for a few airports, but there is no comprehensive base of information on how airport terminal buildings operate or the conditions their user experience. The major aim of this research is to design a framework for analyzing the performance, cost and flexibility in terminal design of airports; to do so the main studies has been done exploring factors affecting the management and functionality of airport terminals considering the different parameters and the effectiveness of the terminal and the key challenges in designing functional aspects of an efficient airport terminal. The contribution of this research work will help approach to develop an efficient framework to overcome the problems occurring in airport terminals. The research paradigm will be positivism, carried out scientifically in order to analyze the performance and flexibility of the airport terminal. SPSS software has been used for the descriptive and regression data analysis for interpretation; the analysis presents an elaborate picture of the findings; other statistic tools are also used. The conclusions are based on the analysis of data presented, suggestions are made for, and that can be analyzed, in coherence with the research objectives further if any. Hence, posit certain areas of research that can be further extended and broadened by other researchers in near future. ItemApplying morpho-emergent theory to the evolution of public buildings: new design strategies for the building envelopes(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2014-04) Jaheen, NohaRecent accelerating concerns about the ramifications of global warming have enhanced the need for finding unconventional solutions. The versatility and vicissitudes of nature highlight survival abilities as a main feature of the adaptation and development of organisms through time. Concurrent environmental hazards and the increasing size of construction projectshasraised the importance of buildings in terms of creating healthy conditions for users. Envelopes, as the common factors between indoor and outdoor conditions, have become the main controller of the survival process. Performance has converged between living organism shells and building shells creating morphological principles for finding solutions. The change in sequence in both macro and microclimates shows the requirement for integrating highly adaptive and responsive envelopes for buildings in the construction field. Morpho-science in the interests of both structure and behaviour was involved the consideration of new design techniques aiming to achieve better indoor environmental quality while saving energy. The aim of this dissertation is to design a multifunctional responsive building shell and to apply a depth of systematic thinking within the integration system. That led to the selection of the ‘Emilia Coccolith’ as a surviving unicellular natural concept to be analysed using aspects of morpho-genetics, morpho-structure and morpho-behaviour. Ontological and computational methods were used in simulating the selected concept to extract utilisations for designing strategies for the construction field. Generative analysis involved physical models of both ‘Hetero’ and ‘Holo’ crystals to find their lighting, ventilation and load performance to form the internal validity for this study. ANSYS and Project Falcon simulation software were used to analyse crystals at a conceptual level showing the efficiency of Holo inspired frames in discharging load per unit in contrast with identical hexagonal frames. Hetero crystals simulation pointed out the interest of crystallographic orientation and bi-refringent ability in forming advanced elements that have a special aesthetic shape which can generate synchronised movement while forming multi-directional ventilation. For the purpose of imitating the natural performance of the analysed crystals in the construction field, advanced smart materials had been involved in new innovative infill and secondary layers of the building envelope, presenting an intelligent skin which has high automation, response, dynamic and energy generative abilities. External validity was presented by examining the newly innovated shell in dry, tropical, and temperate climates using IESVE, Vasari Beta 3, Ecotec Analysis and Flow Design simulation software. Consequently the study draws a new path of design responsive efficient shells for low-rise public buildings which can achieve lighting, ventilation and thermal comfort levels while reducing energy consumption. In the different climatically selected zones of the UAE, UK and Brazil, indoor thermal comfort levels were achieved. This was seen by the envelope dry mode of 21˚C through daylight with gradual increases in humidity levels to cross 40%, especially at night when it automatically shifted the envelope to wet mode. That succeeded in reducing the cooling load in dry and tropical climates to about 44% while showing 35% for the heating load in temperate climate. Furthermore, lighting achieved the comfort level for low-rise public buildings of 2% according to ASHREA, LEED and BREEAM standards - which saved 20% lighting energy consumption. Finally, the Morpho Emergent theory was successful in designing a highly advanced breathing building skin comparable to a natural organisms’ shell while making a contribution to creating global green principles. This is important in terms of exploring sustainability awareness throughout the Middle East. ItemApplying Passive Design Strategies to Achieve Energy Efficient Mosque in UAE: The Case of Uptown Mirdif Mosque(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-09) ALKHALESI, SAREH JAVADEnergy and electricity have become a basic and necessary need that must be available in any place where the population is located, especially to use air-conditioning devices to obtain a comfortable thermal environment in hot and humid areas such as the United Arab Emirates. Burning fossil fuels to produce energy, as the percentage of carbon emissions increased, which is one of the types of greenhouse gases that lead to environmental pollution and global warming. Therefore, it was necessary to search and find solutions that help reduce energy consumption and alternative solutions to produce energy from clean sources. Many studies have been conducted to search for solutions and strategies that contribute to reducing energy consumption. This research aims to help build sustainable mosques that consume the least possible amount of energy while maintaining a comfortable indoor thermal environment for worshipers. By clarifying and knowing some of the different passive design strategies that can be used in building mosques such as thermal insulations, glazing, shadings, green roofs and the production of clean energy using solar panels. This research helps to know the different types and possibilities for each strategy, evaluate these strategies and types, and know their efficiency in reducing the energy consumption of the building, especially in an atmosphere similar to that of the UAE, using the IES-VE simulation program. Then a comparison was made between the strategies and their types to find out which of them are more efficient and capable of reducing building energy consumption, as the results showed that thermal insulation is the most efficient strategy than other strategies. ItemArabic Hotel Reviews Sentiment Analysis Using Deep Learning(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2023-06) ALMANSOORI, MOHAMMADArabic Hotel Feedback sentiment analysis plays a significant role in understanding the opinions and sentiments expressed by customers in their reviews. With the growing popularity of online platforms and social media, Arabic Hotel Feedback have become a valuable source of information for both hotel owners and potential customers. Sentiment analysis techniques aim to automatically classify the sentiment polarity of these reviews as positive, negative, or neutral, providing valuable insights into customer satisfaction and areas of improvement for hotels. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of Arabic Hotel Reviews sentiment analysis. We collected a large dataset of Arabic hotel Feedback from various online platforms, encompassing a wide range of hotels and customer experiences. The dataset was carefully annotated with sentiment labels by human annotators to serve as ground truth for training and evaluation purposes. We employed state-of-the-art machine learning and natural language processing techniques to develop sentiment analysis models specifically tailored for the Arabic language. Our models utilized advanced text preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification algorithms to accurately predict sentiment polarity in Arabic hotel reviews. We evaluated the performance of our models using various evaluation metrics, including accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score, to assess their effectiveness in sentiment classification. The results of our study demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of sentiment analysis in Arabic Hotel Reviews. Our models achieved high accuracy and robust performance in sentiment classification, enabling hotel owners to gain valuable insights into customer sentiments and make informed decisions to enhance customer satisfaction and improve their services. CNN model demonstrated superior performance in terms of precision, recall, F1-score, and accuracy, consistently achieving a score of 74% across all evaluation metrics. The SVM model closely followed with a score of 73% for the same metrics. The LSTM model exhibited slightly lower performance, achieving values between 70% and 71%. On the other hand, the DT model had the lowest scores among all the models, with values of 66% and 68%. The findings of this study contribute to the growing body of research in sentiment analysis and provide valuable insights into sentiment patterns specific to Arabic hotel reviews. Overall, this study highlights the importance of sentiment analysis in the context of Arabic Hotel Feedback and provides a foundation for future research and applications in the field. The insights gained from sentiment analysis can empower hotel owners, marketers, and decision-makers to better understand customer sentiments, address concerns, and optimize their services to meet customer expectations in the dynamic and competitive hotel industry.