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ItemACCESSIBILITY OF INCLUSIVE PROVISIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES TRANSITIONING INTO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UAE: AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2020-10) Alshehhi, KhawlaEmbodying the aspiration of the United Arab Emirates leadership, the vision of the Ministry of Education (MOE), is to ensure quality education for all. To implement the Federal Law 29 of 2006 on the rights of People with Disabilities (PWDs), the MOE launched the “School for All” guideline 2010, under the title “General Rules for the Provision of Special Education Programs and Services for Public and Private Schools.” Transitional services are included in these provisions. This was also declared in the country’s National Policy in 2017 on PWD, currently known as People of Determination (POD). It has been noted that, transitional Services as outlined by the “School for All” guideline do not describe detailed provisions as current international transition practices do, where an Individual Educational Plan (IEP), a summary of performance and required supports are delineated in an exhaustive manner. In contrast, the Quality Standards (QSs) of services for PWDs in governmental and private institutions, issued by the Ministry of Community Development in 2016, introduces a more comprehensive sets of standards for non-specialized institutions to guide provisions for PWDs. For this study, it seemed befitting to explore inclusive provisions in Higher Education through the lens of those QSs. The study aims at investigating inclusive provisions that facilitate transitioning PWDs from high school into HEIs. How inclusive provisions are perceived by PWDs at the opposite ends of a transition, as well as by those who provide these services in high schools and colleges, can point out whether higher education in the UAE is regarded as accessible. This study utilized a sequential mixed methods approach. The 222 participants are from eight high schools and four colleges in the UAE. The qualitative and quantitative data was generated using: documents review, interviews, questionnaire and observation. Statistical analysis and coding of the data revealed themes of PWDs readiness for the journey from high school to higher education highlighting needed provisions that can facilitate their transition to HEIs. The findings point to a “missing link” between secondary and post-secondary education that needs to be urgently addressed for a smoother transition into HEIs. Recommendations serving that purpose are offered. This study contributes to the scant literature considering inclusive higher education in the UAE, and sets a new direction for future research to examine transition services in national post-secondary education. ItemBusiness Leaders’ Perspectives on the Role of Education and the Skillset Required in United Arab Emirates’ Knowledge Economy(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2019-08) Buchler-Eden, HannaThe United Arab Emirates (UAE) is traditionally known for its vast oil reserves and associated wealth, however the Government has accentuated the necessity to transform into a knowledge economy. In order to do so it has reformed its education system with the objective of developing the requisite skills required in a knowledge economy during the formal education period. The purpose of this research is to obtain in-depth understanding of whether senior business leaders of large and medium companies operating in the UAE considered education to be a means of developing a knowledge economy skill set, and if education was important, how successful had it been in enhancing the availability of those skills in the UAE labour market. The initial stage of the thesis was to identify the components of the conceptual framework to answer the research questions, and to assess the progress that the UAE had made towards knowledge economy status, based on established studies and global institutional reports. Mixed methodology was employed to answer the research questions and accomplished by conducting semi-structured interviews with 15 UAE based business leaders, plus a quantitative survey answered by 138 multi-level managers and professionals employed in UAE. The qualitative data was analysed using content analysis, and the survey, was analysed by means of SPSS software. The major findings are that the skills needed for the UAE knowledge economy differed somewhat in ranking from those suggested by previous studies and that the current educational policies, although progress have been made, are not generating sufficient skills to meet labour market demands. The key limitations of the study included a lack of agreed definition of the knowledge economy and the challenge of acquiring robust data from local UAE sources. Several recommendations are made for further study including extending the education framework to embrace early childhood education and university research culture. Furthermore, the organization of a platform for business leaders and education leaders, researchers, policymakers and practitioners to share knowledge and practice, so that the output of skills levels from the education sector could be substantially enhanced. ItemCitizenship and National Identity in International Schools in the UAE: A Case Study of Three American Schools in Dubai(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2016-03) Alaryani, Aysha SalmeenThis thesis examines the national identity formation and citizenship development of Emirati students studying in three international high schools in Dubai using an American curriculum. The research questions look at the extent of national identity and citizenship integration in curriculum and activities of these international schools, the role of the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) in promoting citizenship and national identity in multi-cultural international schools, and the perception of students, parents, teachers, school administrators and government officials on the role of international schools in promoting national identity and citizenship of Emirati students. The theoretical framework is a combination of three theories that include the important characteristics of the topic: Kymlicka’s (2001) liberal nationalism and cultural nationalism, Layder’s (2006) social and cultural agency theory, and Wells’ (1999) social-cultural learning theory. The literature review examines a number of fields relevant to this topic: conceptions of national identity, citizenship conceptions and education, cultural theories and intercultural learning, general organization cultural theory, cross-cultural literature, international education and internationalization of curriculum. The methodology is an interpretive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, and document analysis. The results revealed that there is a lack of curriculum and activities integrating Emirati content. There is a general dissatisfaction among Emirati parents and some Emirati students. While some teachers expressed an interest and desire to integrate more Emirati content, the school administrators generally reported that a sufficient amount was being done, and the government agency officials have a different set of priorities. The conclusion chapter provides a number of recommendations for appropriately increasing the integration of UAE content while maintaining a strong international focus. ItemCollege Instructors' and Students’ Perceptions, Practices, and Assessment of College Students' Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Courses in the UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2021-03) Al Kafri, BananInvestigating college English writing instructors and students’ perceptions of effective teaching and assessment methods is of great importance, as it is found that perceptions could highly influence practices of critical thinking. In academic writing courses, the teaching of critical thinking has been even more emphasized as writing activities effectively enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Therefore, the main purpose of this research paper is to investigate how critical thinking is being perceived, practiced, and assessed in college English writing courses. An explanatory mixed methodology has been used. 20 English instructors and 250 students were surveyed using a link for online versions of the teacher and student questionnaires. As for the qualitative part, five classroom observations and six semi-structured interviews were conducted. The findings revealed that college English writing instructors and students have clear and almost similar definitions of critical thinking, yet their perceptions of effective instructional and assessment methods as well as their practices were found to be varied and different. One major mismatch that has been identified between key stakeholders’ perceptions was about the importance of explicit instruction on critical thinking. Based on findings, several recommendations were suggested to policymakers and university administration for more collaborative efforts with instructors to support them in their attempts to teach and assess students’ critical thinking. ItemA Comparative Analysis of Proficiency Scores of University Students in the United Arab Emirates: The Effectiveness of Using a First Language When Teaching a Second Language in a Reading Class(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2013-10) Traish, AmiraThis study, an investigation into the effectiveness of using a learner’s first language (L1) to teach a second language (L2) in reading comprehension classes, focuses on tertiary students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The role of the learner’s L1 in facilitating instruction of an L2 has evoked considerable discussion among linguists and language instructors. Many theorists argue that a student’s L1 contributes to a more successful learning environment and facilitates second language acquisition, particularly with respect to socio-psychological factors such as motivation. The UAE has set guidelines for entrance into English-medium programmes mandating that students attain a 500 in the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or an average Band 5 in the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS). Because English has risen to near total hegemony in the linguistic/language realm, both students and instructors feel pressure to pass these reading examinations; one-third of the country’s tertiary budget is for first-year students. Because of the importance placed on proficiency scores, this study uses empirical data, comparing test scores of two classes and exploring and examining their differences. One instructor uses a student’s L1 (Arabic) to teach reading in L2, and the other does not. Research questions for this study have employed a mixed methods approach (qualitative and quantitative), which has included assessment data from midterm and proficiency exams as well as a student questionnaire, classroom observations, and interviews. The findings of the study, which indicate negligible differences in overall scores, demonstrate that the pedagogical practice has no significant impact on the scores obtained. However, further study is warranted to accommodate more of the variables that may have affected data outcome. It is hoped that this study will prompt additional interest and research in the field of L1/L2 reading instruction and that further exploration of this topic will facilitate improved reading and academic performance for students both in the UAE and elsewhere. ItemThe Complexity of Texts Read by Grades 3 to 6 English Learners in Muscat Governorate in Oman(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2020-09) Al-Mamary, FakhrahThe key to success in reading texts lies in their careful design with progressing levels of complexity that are within the reader’s competence. The selection of these texts that hold the right level of complexity is more critical in initial reading phases because it is during these phases that the stage is set for later reading development. Therefore, understanding the factors that contribute to the complexity of texts in a specific context aids towards establishing a text complexity model. Hence, the current thesis attempts towards developing a new model for the concept of Text Complexity for texts that are read by young EFL learners. The model is the result of the exploration of the factors that affect text complexity and which are related to texts, to readers or to the interplay between texts and readers while reading. The exploration of these factors is grounded on the Interactive View of Reading by Rumelhart (1985) while also attending to other theories and models that indirectly tackle factors related to readers and texts. The factors have been explored using a mixed –methods- approach since conducting text complexity research using quantitative tools only or qualitative tools only holds both strengths and limitations. Hence, under Pragmatism, the researcher was able to conduct the current research within both the positivist and the interpretivist paradigms. The data collection tools included readability formula (Lexile), qualitative judgments of texts, a reading fluency test (WCPM), miscue analysis and interviews. The research was conducted in three government schools in Muscat and it included 32 young learners from grades three, four, five and six. Seventy texts were analyzed quantitatively by Lexile and fifty texts were analyzed qualitatively by twenty educational professionals. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the quantitative data generated from the different research tools. The findings of this research suggest that text complexity is influenced by the text factors, reader factors and factors resulting from the interplay between texts and readers during reading. The text factors include the unsystematic progression, the texts’ linguistic complexity, the limited focus on learning- to –read skills, the books’ layout, and the books’ content. The reader factors include reader’s prior knowledge, the reader’s reading strategies and the reader’s interest. The reader- text factors involve the inadequate level of reading fluency, the inability of readers to select books that match their level and the lack of adequate English language proficiency. The findings of this research have several implications towards a renewed model of text complexity for EFL learners. The findings have also several implications on the policies of authoring, evaluating and selecting texts for young learners of English in Oman in addition to its theoretical and methodological contributions to the research of text complexity in an EFL setting. Item"Cross-Cultural Analysis of Principals’ Leadership in Elementary Schools: Case Studies of Government Funded Schools in Abu Dhabi "(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2018-08) NASAB, RIHAN MHD RAGHEBThe thesis explores, through an interpretive framework, school leadership practices in Abu Dhabi Emirate and the embedded school leadership model. The Abu Dhabi School Model is derived from the US and is currently being implemented as a new model of school leadership that includes a cross-cultural dimension. This new approach is based on the assumption that the international literature does not adequately capture the cross-cultural domain and cultural factors that influence leadership practices in Abu Dhabi schools. Four theoretical models are used to explore leadership practices in the UAE: Burns’s transforming/transactional leadership theory (1978), Klann’s Good Leadership Model (2007), Branine’s Arab Organisation Model (2011) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s (2012) Cross-Cultural Model. The methodology adopted is a qualitative hermeneutic approach designed to capture the authentic, subjective meaning of leadership to the participants. Three sources of data were used in understanding the nature of leadership practices in Abu Dhabi schools, interviews with teachers, head teachers, vice principals, principals and cluster managers, school document analysis and material culture observations. Several themes are identified as a result of this study that influence leadership practices: cultural influences, the importance of culture building, cross-cultural influences, leadership style/direction and policy implications. Based on these findings an Emirati model of principal leadership has been developed that includes factors specific to the UAE culture. Further qualitative and quantitative research is recommended to investigate these exploratory findings, which offer a unique cross-cultural perspective as a basis for understanding leadership in UAE schools. ItemThe Cultural Perspective of Native teachers of English in Multicultural Classrooms: An In-depth Study of the Classroom of Private Schools of Dubai(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2020-12) Alhajji, ReemThe following study has been conducted to assess the cultural impact in the pedagogical context. The aimed of the study, therefore, is concerned with conducting an in-depth analysis about the perspective that the native English teachers have as far as the cultural aspects of teaching a multi-cultural classroom within the UAE. The rational for the study has been explained through the identification of problems arising on account of the differences in cultural values and systems as observed among the students and the teachers. Such differences lead to miscommunication and misunderstandings, consequently affecting the quality of education adversely. The aim of the study has been attained through the descriptive analysis of the data which has been collected from the teacher by means of face-to-face in-depth interviews and observations of the classroom sessions. Open ended semi-structured questions have been used for the interview, and for the lesson observation, the researcher had adopted a passive approach. A total of 10 teachers employed within private schools of Dubai have participated in the study, and 20 classes were observed across 4 schools. The analysis of the data has revealed that unawareness of the various cultures, differences in the knowledge levels of the students, the attitudes of the parents, and the difference in independence levels of the multicultural students presents obstacles for the native teachers. In addition, the culture of the teachers contributes to difficulties in the way that the students respond in class and how receptive they are to the lessons. In an attempt to resolve such issues, the native teacher have adopted practices like modification of their teaching approach to suit the cultural demands, and making efforts to discuss about the global issues. However, such efforts are not enough to ensure that the quality of education meet the global standards, and hence recommendations for its improvement have been made. The most prominent recommendation includes proving appropriate training to the teachers so that their intercultural competence levels can be enhanced. Further, based on the limitations of the study, recommendation for the future direction of study on this topic have been made. ItemDiscourse Analysis of English and Arabic Newspaper Opinion Editorials: Cohesive Devices Patterning and Implications for Teaching Translation and Writing(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2016-01) AYYASH, EMAD ABUThe present study investigates the roles of cohesive devices in English and Arabic newspaper opinion editorials and the common patterns that exist between the two languages as far as the use of cohesive devices is concerned. Two famous opinion columnists have been chosen, Thomas L. Friedman and Ahmed Hasan Al-Zubi. Ten articles written by each columnist have been selected using systematic sampling (SS) within which both purposive, criterion-based sampling and random sampling have been used. The articles have been analysed using the quantitative and qualitative textual analysis within an embedded, mixed methods approach. While the analysis has been in great part of qualitative nature, descriptive statistics have been provided to describe basic features of the data and to avoid subjective judgments. In order to provide descriptive statistics pertaining to numerals, percentages and concordances of cohesive devices, WordSmith Tool 6.0 (Scott 2015) has been utilised within a thick, qualitative description of the roles cohesive devices have played in all the twenty articles. The study has attempted to answer the following questions: 1) What are the roles played by cohesive devices in English and Arabic opinion articles?, 2) What are the patterns related to the roles of cohesive devices? and 3) What are the common patterns, if any, that exist in English and Arabic opinion articles as far as cohesive devices are concerned? The study has found that cohesive devices have played a number of various roles that fall under six broad categories in the two sets of articles. Following the identification of these roles, a cross-language patterning has been conducted to find out the common patterns between the two sets of articles at two levels: role-related patterns and patterns pertinent to the use of cohesive devices. Finally, the pedagogical implications for English-Arabic translation and writing have been outlined. ItemEducation in post War-Somalia:Developing an Integrated Thematic Model of History Curriculum for Secondary Schools(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2019-11) Issa, FawziaPost-conflict Somalia disintegrated into three regions: Central Southern Somalia; Puntland; and the self-declared Republic of Somaliland. Each of them independently established its own education system. Religious schools remained the only source of effective early childhood education during the collapsed period. The UNESCO and the UNICEF played major roles in funding, supervision, and most importantly, providing learning resources and material for students in opened schools. Then in 1995, upon withdrawal of UN forces, local community efforts contributed to revive the education system. New schools were built in the Southern region by NGOs who owned the majority of schools. Despite this positive developments, Somalia still has issues related to national identity and consciousness. As part of efforts to use research to help deal with these issues, this study examined the history curriculum of secondary schools in Somalia (Moqadishu, Somaliland, and Puntland) with the aim to propose a new curriculum that will help address the current identity crisis. The study adopted three interrelated theories to build underpin its theoretical framework, namely: Multidisciplinary frameworks of Social Identity Theory; Intergroup Emotional Theory (IET), and the Constructivism Learning Theory. The Design and Development Research (DDR) model was selected as the research methodology. The DDR is a significant methodology that bridges the gap between theory and practice by testing theory and validating practice. It is a developmental research that uses empirical research to investigate the problem in real-context and, consequently, provides better theoretical understanding of the problem which reflects on developed practice. Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used to collect empirical evidence. A total of 300 students responded to the questionnaire in Mogadishu, Hargessa, and Garwe and 11 educators participated in semi-structured interviews.Results from the questionnaire showed that students from the three locales showed significant differences in several areas and that students struggled to think historically to develop national consciousness and identity. Interpretation of in-depth interviews reveal that the history curricula of Somalia has no merit or worth in terms of developing national consciousness and identity in students. Qualitative interviews revealed five themes that appeared to be characteristic of a meritorious curriculum: Relevancy, Powerful Knowledge, Cause and Consequences, Change and Continuity, and Difficult History. The finding enabled the development of an integrated thematic instructional model which can help to determine suggestions for the development of an integrated thematic curriculum designed to deliver a new content and narrative that seeks to develop social cohesion and reconciliation and reconstruct national identity in post-conflict Somalia. The new content which is underpinned by powerful knowledge will enhance students’ ability to develop historical understanding of what happened in the past and make connections with the present to inform future actions. This meaningful knowledge will enable students to understand the civil war of 1991 from a historical perspective and use their understanding of the historical narrative surrounding civil war to take a stand on the contemporary issues. ItemEffectiveness of Career Guidance and Counselling: A Study among Higher Education Emirati Female Students in Northern Emirates(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2019-08) Al Rasbi, SumayyaBackground: The 21st century has been categorized by globalization, and with continuous changes in the work environment and high demand for new jobs, career guidance and counselling has become an important topic. The education system is giving the new entry students the tools and knowledge to plan for their future, which is one of their primary goals. Career guidance and counselling can give the right direction and tools for students to set their career goals, providing them with a clear understanding of the education and skills that they need to meet their goals and support them in making good career decisions. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influencing factors of higher education students’ career choice and to find out the effective career guidance and counselling services that best support undergraduate students in the UAE. Methods: The researcher employed exploratory sequential mixed methods for this study. The mixed research methods included both qualitative and quantitative methods. These included a student questionnaire, student interviews, career advisor interviews and document analysis. Results: The main findings of this study indicated that there are two types of career guidance and counselling that have been provided for the students: - individual (face-to-face) sessions and group sessions, which more than 50% of the students like to attend. Also, participant students preferred their parents as the main resource for them in their career major choice with 36% which consider one of factor that effect students’ career major choice. Based on the students’ and the career advisors’ responses, the study additionally found that there are different career guidance services available for the students whenever they need support and guidance. Implications: Overall, all recommendations indicate the need to increase the awareness of the importance of the role of the career counsellor and students need to refer to their campus career counsellor for any career major issues. It has a beneficial impact on the students within career counselling and guidance activities and the students seek outcomes that are beneficial for their study life and future job because they can practice and improve skills such as: communication skills, leadership skills, time management, critical thinking skills and setting their goals, ItemThe Effectiveness of Instructional Supervisors in Promoting Personalized Professional Learning at Four Private Schools in Abu Dhabi(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2023-01) EL MAMLOUK, SALIM GHALEBPersonalized professional learning (PPL) is conceptualized as a targeted set of instructional supervisory practices designed to address teachers’ diverse growth needs and relevant interests. Research across a wide range of contexts shows that some schools that implement the PPL are led from the side by instructional supervisors who have challenged the traditional top-down paradigm of professional learning and redesigned its core practices to facilitate offering a personalized set of bottom-up professional learning strategies. These strategies involve teachers collaborating individually in a personalized focus with their instructional supervisors or collectively with other teachers. The PPL is practiced in the UAE, yet there is no transparent and clear investigation to show whether it is promoted effectively. Thus, this study investigated the effectiveness of instructional supervisors in promoting PPL at four private schools in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. A mixed research method was employed as a methodological triangulation design to guide the investigation using a model for PPL and an integrated theoretical framework that merges various theories and models related to leadership and learning. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using data collection instruments that included self-administered questionnaires, semi-structured and focus group interviews, and document analysis. The study’s findings revealed that the professional learning provided impacted teachers’ performance based on the perceptions of instructional supervisors. However, teachers perceived that instructional supervisors were still relying on top-down professional learning practices that limited their choice, restricted their voice, and barely tailored professional learning content to their growth needs or interests. Teachers were restrained by top-down decisions that limited their freedom to choose or design their PPL activities. The study concluded with implications and recommendations for policy and practice to better foster a profound PPL experience. These recommendations include adopting more personalized and job-embedded strategies from the bottom-up professional learning model. Also, using digital platforms adaptive to assess, track and manage teachers’ needs, granting them a space to exchange experiences and share best practices, along with offering more ongoing learning opportunities to teachers everywhere at any time. For policymakers, upgrading the professional learning policy and the school inspection framework with guiding statements that provide more detailed descriptions of personalized professional learning would be valuable. ItemEffectiveness of Psycholinguistic Approaches in Improving Students’ Achievements in Writing in the Online Distance Learning Setting: A Case Study on Grade Eleven Students in the UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2023-06) EMARA, TAREK MAHMOUD IBRAHIMBecause of the Covid-19 pandemic, Online Distance Learning (ODL) has become an important learning tool that needs more attention from educationalists to be effectively used to deliver the English language to second language learners. This requires English language teachers (ELTs) to adopt valid methodological approaches and adapt suitable strategies to help improve their teaching practices in ODL classrooms, which may be applicable in other language teaching contexts. This study is a contribution to our knowledge of how to effectively employ psycholinguistic approaches in the ODL setting to improve students’ achievements in the English Language Writing Skill (ELWS). To investigate and explore its effectiveness in improving students’ ELWS achievements in the ODL setting. A mixed-methods approach was employed, using the pretest-posttests, and classroom observations during 8-week intervention on an experimental group treated by implementing the proposed psycholinguistic framework and a control group that was taught conventionally. A close-ended questionnaire was also employed to explore ELTs’ perceptions of psycholinguistic approaches and elicit their suggestions to implement them more effectively and figure out some solutions to any upcoming ODL challenges. Results from the pretest-posttests and findings from the classroom observations show that there is a difference in students’ ELWS achievements in favor of the experimental group. Results from the questionnaire show that ELTs need to enrich their knowledge to be skillful enough to master the ODL setting. ItemThe Effectiveness of School Leaders’ Professional Development Programs in Promoting the Components of Professional Learning Communities in Jordan Public Secondary Schools According to School Leaders’ and Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2020-07) ABDALLAH, RAMIABSTRACT IN ENGLISH This study primarily aims to investigate the effectiveness of school leaders’ Professional Development Programs in promoting the characteristics of Professional Learning Communities in Jordan public secondary schools, through collecting and understanding the School Leaders’ (i.e., Principals’, Vice Principals’) and Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices. Thus, this study included two research questions as follows: What are the school leaders’ and teachers’ perceptions and practice of the effectiveness of school leaders’ Professional Development Programs in promoting the characteristics of Professional Learning Communities at Jordanian public secondary schools? To what extent do demographic differences among participants account for the effectiveness of school leaders’ Professional Development Programs in promoting the characteristics of Professional Learning Communities at Jordanian public secondary schools? The perceptions of the school leaders about the effectiveness of school leaders’ Professional Development Programs in supporting them to promote the characteristics of Professional Learning Communities at their schools showed that the designing process of needs improvement, the delivery of training was appropriate, weakness of evaluation procedures for professional development, the absence of follow up visits for the school leaders, the presence of logistics difficulties and support of the school leaders’ Professional Development Programs related to Professional Learning Communities. Furthermore, the perceptions of the teachers about the extent of practicing the characteristics of Professional Learning Communities illustrated the nonexistence of clear common goals, vision, values and mission for all educators at the school related to the students’ learning, disorganized collaboration among educators, the lack of collective inquiry, the absence of action orientation, teachers commitment to continuous improvement is weak, the randomness of results orientation within the public schools and the weakness of school’s leadership role in promoting some components of the professional learning community. In general, some results indicated to significant statistical differences related to the demographic differences among participants (regarding the effectiveness of school leaders’ Professional Development Programs in promoting the characteristics of Professional Learning Communities at Jordanian public secondary schools. ItemAn Emirati Tapestry of Time: A narrative inquiry of the meaning and experience of time(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2015-03) Kenaid, KalthamThis research investigates how time is experienced and what time means for the seven chosen Emirati participants. An interpretative, qualitative framework underpins this research project is guided by the philosophies of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Martin Heidegger. Using a narrative inquiry methodology, it weaves the simple narratives of the participants’ experiences including the temporal domains of past, present, and future. The collected data is derived from in-depth interviews informed by the three-interview series suggested by Irving Seidman (2006). The experiential data analysis is guided by Paul Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation. The analysis brings to light the narratives and descriptions for each participant’s time experience. The main thematic analysis of participants’ responses are organised into three main thematic categories. These themes are: time consciousness, social time, pedagogical time and future projections with a focus on pedagogical time. The study presents the participants’ narratives as thick descriptions of their experience and weaves their narratives into an Emirati Sadu (traditional Bedouin weaving). The findings indicate that the pedagogical time experience was influenced by the student’s moods of boredom and the teacher’s instructional methods. The teacher played a constructive role when she was attentive to the needs of the student. As for the external environment, the findings illustrate that the speed of life to which the participants were exposed created a detachment from a rich past instead of a continuation of such time experience. Implications for pedagogical leadership and practice are offered. Future research is also suggested using different methodologies to determine other aspects of Emirati time experience in the educational field. ItemEmirati Women’s Leadership Development: Biographical Narratives of Culture and Learning(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2016-10) Al Naqbi, Shamma HamdoonThe main purpose of this thesis is to investigate cultural factors and learning that have contributed to the leadership development of Emirati women. Available international educational leadership literature does not adequately address religious and cultural values, particularly those in Islamic and Arab contexts. The methodology adopted is qualitative aimed at an exploration of meaning, important in understanding the factors that contributed to leadership development of my participants. Three sources of data were used in understanding the complex issue of leadershipdevelopment: in-depth narrative semi-structured interviews, document analysis and diary writing. Several themes are identified in the data analysis as having the main influences on Emirati women’s leadership development: family influences, cultural influences, social influences, influential role models, colleagues’ relationships, workplace culture/environment, and involvement in leadership activities. Based on these findings, an Emirati model of women’s leadership development has been developed that includes those factors distinctive to UAE society that contribute to a local model. The thesis will focus on participants from two Emirates in the UAE that are less frequently studied in research on the GCC and Middle East region: Ras Al Khaimah and Fujairah. Further qualitative and quantitative research is required in order to continue the research that this thesis has presented as an exploratory study that has sought to begin the dialogue that is so relevant at this time in the UAE. ItemEvaluating Basic English Language Courses in the Foundation Programme at an Educational Institute in the United Arab Emirates: Instructor and Student Perspectives(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2018-04) ABU SHUNNAR, BASHAR"The current research study was designed with the purpose of evaluating the Basic English Language Courses (BELC), in the Foundation Programme (FP) at an educational institute in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Motivated by the apparent shortfall of requisite English language skills of UAE engineering and business graduates, when it comes to securing employment, the current study investigated the suitability of the English courses, and teaching methodologies. This was accomplished by eliciting the opinions of the programme participants regarding the programme’s quality. These outcomes subsequently formed the basis upon which programme improvements were suggested. The BELC comprises three courses: 1) reading; 2) writing; and 3) conversation. Students in their first semester of institute enrolment must undertake these BELC courses, in order to enhance their English language ability. Due to the investigatory nature of the current study, and its context-specificity, the naturalistic-interpretive approach, along with the social constructivist approach, were employed to generate the epistemological stance, which focuses mainly on human interactions and environments. Adopting such a paradigm will support comprehension and interpretation, of participant experiences in the BELC and FP. The current study’s research design employed a sequential mixed methods case study, analysing and integrating both quantitative and qualitative data. In addition, it utilized an Eclectic Approach as an evaluative model for the purpose of better understanding the research problem. Participants were composed of three lecturers, who were teaching the BELC courses, and 55 students in their first year at the FP. The current study made use of both qualitative and quantitative instruments of data collection but greater focus was given to qualitative methods because of the social constructivist stance adopted. The data were collected in two principal phases by using a sequential process. The qualitative data were collected in the first phase through semi-structured interviews, students’ journal-diaries, document analysis and the open-ended items on the questionnaires. The quantitative data were collected in the second phase through closed-ended questionnaire items. Data were analysed quantitatively by employing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) descriptive statistics, and qualitatively by utilising exploratory content analysis. The current study’s results demonstrate that the BELC suffers from significant shortcomings which require attention. Deficiencies pertain to the physical environment of the institute site. These encompass antiquated buildings, a restricted amount of classrooms, shortfalls in pedagogic and didactic materials, resources and facilities, and insufficient library accoutrements. In accordance with the study’s conclusions, BELC goals and objectives also show salient concerns which call for reform. The current study’s results also highlight student dissatisfaction with BELC course content and instructional materials and resources; citing uninteresting and unchallenging course topics, as well as obsolete textbooks. The programme’s instructional methodologies were criticised as being too traditionally oriented; the teaching methods as overly lecturer-centred. The study’s outcomes also reveal intense student criticism of the arcane and antiquated assessment philosophy employed by their lecturers. Such evaluative philosophy relies too heavily on one final, course examination which tests only learnt content. The current study contributes to the knowledge of language programme evaluation from various perspectives. It fills a vacuum in the scholarly literature of language programme evaluation, by specifically addressing the Emirati educational context. In addition, the current study contributes theoretically with regard to the social constructivism mode of inquiry in the Emirati context. Finally, the current study proposes an evaluation approach that can be applied, and modified, depending on the specifications of any given setting. " ItemExploration of STEM Reforms for Developing an Effective Large‐scale, Research‐based Policy in the UAE STEM(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2017-11) AL QURAAN, ELAINEBackground: Mathematics, science, engineering, and technology are subjects believed to reflect people’s cultural achievements that power the economy and development, and at the same time constitute essential aspects of the lives. Educators admit that it is vitally important that integrated STEM education in K-12 schools aligns with 21st century skills, creates new jobs, increases competition in the global economy, and educates the next generation of STEM professional. The implementation of STEM is at its early stage in UAE and calls for an integrated framework for effective implementation in K-12 education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a policy and implementation framework in the UAE by identifying critical elements of an integrated STEM education and key factors related to the implementation of an integrated STEM curriculum in K-12 schools in UAE. Methods: The researcher employed Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods for this study. The mixed research methods included both qualitative and quantitative methods. These include document analysis, teacher questionnaire survey, teacher and coordinators’ interview surveys, school and district leaders’ interview survey, and classroom observations. Results: The findings of this study proposed the policy recommendation framework for integrated STEM implementation in UAE schools. It can be concluded from the findings that STEM implementation can be categorized into structural and interpersonal implementation dimensions. In addition, Assessment, Connection, Curriculum and Delivery, Leadership, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technology and Resources are important factors associated with STEM integration and implementation in UAE schools. The findings also suggested that curriculum, pedagogy, leadership, professional development, and assessment are important elements associated with STEM integration and implementation in UAE schools. The study proposed policy recommendation based on policy planning, leadership, establishing STEM, professional development of teachers, communities and businesses’ role, technology and resources, curriculum design and assessments, pedagogy and learning, capacity building and motivation, awareness and promotion, society’s adaptations, and exposure and employment. Implications/Contributions: It was evident that teachers and school leaders are facing many challenges as they struggled to figure out the best ways to plan and implement STEM in UAE. The isolation that they faced as pioneers in implementing these kinds of courses in K-12 education was also evident. Examining of an integrated policy recommendation for STEM framework could help all educational leaders to understand this phenomenon better. ItemExploring College Students’ English Language Learning Motivation and Their Teachers’ Motivational Strategies(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2023-07-20) ABBAS, SHEHAB A. R.Motivation is a key element in the process of L2 learning. This leads many researchers to investigate the students' motivational factors, teachers' motivational strategies, students' perceptions about their teachers' strategies, and what strategies students use to maintain their L2 learning motivation insides and outside the classroom. The literature reveals that many studies explored students’ perceptions regarding their motivational factors for learning English but rarely tackled both students’ and teachers’ perceptions regarding students’ motivational components and the motivational strategies which teachers use to maintain or boost students’ English learning motivation. This study explores students' motivational factors and what approaches students use to maintain their motivation. Besides, it will explore EFL teachers’ and students’ views about motivational strategies used in Abu Dhabi EFL classrooms in order to investigate potential mismatches. Collecting qualitative and quantitative data adopted a mixed-method approach which was carried out in the academic context of three campuses in one of Abu-Dhabi's private colleges. This involved first the administration of a questionnaire to teachers and students. Second, six EFL teachers and six EFL students were in-depth interviewed individually for the purpose of exploring further those essential issues which might be revealed from both teachers and students' personal opinions in regard to motivational factors in learning the language along with those that might be shown in respect to teachers and students' viewpoint relating to the strategies adopted by teachers for motivating their students. Findings reveal that students have average interest and motivation to learn English. Besides, their motivation is mostly instrumental i.e., future career, academic study, and travelling. In addition, there are discrepancies between students and teachers’ perceptions of the important motivational strategies which should be used by teachers to boost students’ motivation to learn English. The findings will help teachers focus more on their students’ motivational factors; and consequently, they will help in tailoring their classes in a way which will be more motivating for the learners. Moreover, by having a clear picture of students’ perceptions of the motivational strategies used in classroom, teachers will have more awareness of the motivational strategies used in their classes. Moreover, policy makers of English language teaching in the UAE will get a good picture about how things go with college students regarding English language learning. ItemExploring culturally responsive leadership practices in international private schools in Dubai(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2019-03) Zamani, ZahraThe cultural diversity in the city of Dubai is high. Accordingly, it is important for its schools’ leaders to lead their schools by using a leadership style, which is appropriate for this context. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways and also the extent to which culturally responsive leadership is being practiced by heads of departments in the international private, middle and high schools in Dubai, UAE. The Challenges that heads of department face while leading based on culturally responsive practices are also determined. The relationships between head teachers’ culturally responsive practices and their related knowledge and training and their life experiences are examined. This study is underpinned by a culturally responsive leadership theory and uses a mixed method approach to generate data to achieve the research aim. Data was gathered from 14 heads of departments by conducting semi-structured interviews and 278 heads of department by doing a survey. Some elements of culturally responsive leadership were being practiced at a high level by the heads of departments. Some of these elements were practiced in an almost similar ways in different schools like being available for students, teachers and parents. While, some of the others like having caring behavior were practiced in more varied ways by different heads of departments. Information provided in this study can be used for planning to make a balance for equally practicing all elements of culturally responsive leadership at a high level.