Browsing Dissertations for Sustainable Design of Built Environment (SDBE) by Issue Date
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ItemThe Role of Shading as a Passive Strategy in Traditional Built Environment in Hot Climate(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2007-11) Tehrani, AmirHassan MajidiSome Middle Eastern countries are located in the hot climate zone and are rich in natural resources particularly oil and gas. In recent years, due to the high income from oil, they have started to develop the urban fabric rapidly and in an unsustainable way and as a result a large amount of natural resources have been consumed. Sustainability can restore the balance in using energy and resources and in providing sustainable urban development. Passive cooling strategies are the first approach towards establishing a sustainable built environment in the Middle East. There are several passive solutions in this region which were introduced hundreds of years ago such as the Badgir (wind tower) and a number of studies have been conducted in order to investigate the performance and possibilities of using these solutions in the current built environment. The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of shading as a selected passive solution as the first phase of sustainable design. The cities of Yazd (Iran) and Bastakya (Dubai-UAE) are introduced as case studies in order to assess the impacts of shading from thermal, visual and psychological aspects on human comfort in the local traditional built environment. The methodology combines simulation, site visits, field measurements and relevant research to analyze thoroughly the effects of shading on the urban fabric and individual building. The results reveal the advantages of the compact urban fabric and courtyard housing in providing shading to improve human comfort in the traditional built environments in Yazd and Bastakya. The shading disadvantages are also discussed. The conclusion provides a summary of the findings and the outlook presents the results in order to integrate shading as the primary passive solution in future development in both locations or anywhere with similar climatic and cultural patterns. ItemDecreasing the CO2 emissions and the embodied nergy in the UAE through the selection of sustainable building materials in the construction phase(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2008-01) Saadah, Yasmeen SamiA great quantity of CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere through the different phases of a building life cycle: in the production of materials and products, in the construction of the building itself, in the setting of the site, in the exploitation, the renovations, the later rehabilitations, up to the final demolition. The purpose of this study is to quantify the total amount of CO2 emissions and embodied energy that can be saved by the method presented in the particular phase of the material selection within the life cycle of a building. This material selection, as well as the bioclimatic characteristics, must be defined from the early design project phase. As a result, the research shows the possibility of reducing the embodied energy in building materials up to 53% and the CO2 emissions produced up to 59% in the construction phase, through a careful selection of building materials with sustainable features. ItemIncreasing the air flow between buildings in high density urban areas in Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2008-03) Al-Badi, Abdulwahed Hasan Saeed HasanThis research is a study of how to increase the flow of natural ventilation in a high density urban area. It was carried out in Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Distance between the buildings is an important variable in promoting ventilation in urban design. High density zones in RAK cause poor ventilation and the small distance between buildings prevent deeper penetration by the wind. Thus, the scope of the study is to raise the amount of natural ventilation in high density urban areas in RAK. A review of literature on the research topic is provided in this study while both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through numerical simulation, experimental approach and case study in order to maintain both reliability and validity. The results of this research revealed that there is a considerable improvement in the airflow movements around the buildings after the urban parameters of the study area have been modified. ItemThe Effect of Using Advanced Insulation Material on Indoor Temperature(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-02) Arbabioon, SaharSince UAE’s urban development started two decades ago, the constructions have been influenced by international high technology. As a result, the advanced developments are very different from the local traditional housing which has been built according to the climate. The traditional building materials and components, such masonry and brick walls, have a great capacity to insulate the heat therefore the best possible thermal comfort is achieved during the summer. On the other hand, the modern materials as well as highly glazed surfaces have a little capacity to isolate the heat which causes uncomfortable high temperature during the summer. The purpose of this study was to introduce advanced heat and moisture insulation for UAE hot and humid climate. Studying different type of insulation material such as Phase Change Material, Styropor, Styrodur c, Neopor, Micronal PCM, and EIFS class PB wall and finding the effects of humidity on their thermal storage and their latent heat. The advanced heat and moisture recommended insulation material in this research was Class PB-EIFS panel. EIFS, Exterior Insulation Finish Systems, has been presented in order to reveal the effect of the thickness and the color of the exterior wall which creates more comfort in the interior temperature. Although this material seems more expensive than the normal insulations, but in the real terms a fully glazed building has more initial cost for exterior finishes. By selecting an existing fully glazed building in UAE and applying EIFS with different thickness and colors. The results Ecotect Simulations showed that Class PB EIFS with 290 mm Thickness on beige color exterior finish, not only reduces the annual energy by 10 %, also there was significant of 60% saving on initial cost by removing the glass façade on construction cost. As result the initial cost of buying this EIFS material could be covered in the early years of usage by reducing the annual energy consumption. ItemInvestigations on the integration of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines in High-rise Buildings(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-04) Helmy, Omar OsamaThe potential of wind energy as a renewable source is widely recognized these days, with wind farms multiplying all around the world. However another application for wind turbine is now gaining interest, the concept of integrating wind power harnessing in the urban environment. The prospective of harnessing energy were it is needed the most and avoiding expensive long distance networks is quiet appealing. This thesis investigates this potential by studying the suitability of different turbine types for urban integration. From the literature review, it seems that VAWTs though much less common of the two main types, is much more suitable for urban integration. A mathematical study was then conducted on four different cities with different wind characteristics to estimate the potential power that can be harnessed by each turbine type in each case. Two modern turbine prototypes were then selected from the two main categories and their power curves was applied to the wind data to calculate the potential power output. Last, the enhancement of the wind energy potential for turbines mounted on high-rise buildings was investigated, through calculating the wind speeds at the respective heights. The second study approach evolved the use of CFD to simulate a number of VAWT integration scenarios in high-rise buildings based on the first part of the research. The wind movement characteristics where observed for the turbine installation location and a calculation was made to estimate the available mass flow rate in each case. Results show a big potential in the integration of VAWT in buildings and promising power gains from increasing the installation height. ItemA Study on Reducing Heat Gains through the use of Bio-Climatic Facades(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-04) Kambil, Jidesh PadmanabhanFor centuries, humans have built shelters that were bio-climatic and adapted to the region they belonged to. They achieved comfort within their enclosures without the over-dependence on electricity. But since the advent of curtain walls and centralized air-conditioning, we have leaned towards aesthetics at the cost of performance. Pampered by the controlled internal environment, we started to live in isolation from nature, our whole existence became governed by machines and in time our lives have became an extension of the environment we now inhabit. We have also paid the price for our choices. Today the very existence of all life on earth lies on a fragile lifeline of hope. We have used our resources beyond the limit and have poisoned every sphere of life on the planet. It is not certain if there is a way back, but we are left with no more choices, we have only one option. We need to change, now. Buildings have been the surprise villains in the Carbon footprint story and we now know that much of the energy generated by man on earth goes into operating our buildings and its life supporting systems (HVAC). Today, most buildings cannot sustain life within it in the absence of energy to power the ventilation systems. By using sealed facades, we are cutting ourselves entirely from the surrounding environment. But this becomes an even bigger problem when one considers the generous use of glazing in urban architecture especially in some parts of the world like Dubai that are too hot and too bright for such architectural adventures. The overuse of glazing also brings in excess glare and heat, which is often not anticipated or understood when the designer wills a gleaming glazed tower in the middle of a dessert. What then are the solutions if any? Are there any Bio-climatic Solutions to the designer’s dilemma? In this research, the use of ETFE foil cushions as an external surface in a modular double skin façade system is explored. The material offers promising performance figures and could be a sustainable material on many fronts when compared to glass. But first it has to be tested to see whether it can help in reducing heat gains through the façade, which is often the weak point in a building’s defense against the external forces. Simulation models are used to test the performance of ETFE skin with the help of ECOTECT5.5. Heating and Cooling load values will be compared for both glass and ETFE to analyze the effectiveness of both with regard to reducing heat gains. A present worth calculation for ETFE will also be carried out to assess the economic implications of using the material in place of the more conventional glazing. ItemDesign for outdoor in a hot & dry climate: a study of outdoor thermal comfort in Dubai, UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-06) Fabros, Malaya V.With the growing interest on sustainability, design consideration for thermal comfort in the outdoors is seen as an important factor enhancing the quality of life in the urban setting. The topic has received significant interest and several studies have been made in mostly temperate and tropical climates. However, not much investigation into the matter has been done in hot-arid climates characteristic to that of the middle-eastern countries. The study then aimed to understand the relationships between the several factors (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, clothing and activity) affecting thermal comfort, determine the actual comfort zone for Dubai UAE through field measurements and interview surveys, and recommend design considerations to achieve thermal comfort. The findings of the study show that majority of the sample population in Dubai reported overall thermal comfort for the three seasons observed. Solar radiation has most direct influence on thermal comfort outdoors thus it is recommended that shading be of primary consideration during summer. It was also found that relative humidity is an amplifying factor for air temperature. Wind should be accounted for its cooling effect thus high wind speeds are encouraged during summer while protection from this must be provided during winter. Contrary to the common notion that middle eastern climate is very harsh and that thermal comfort could only be achieved in a controlled indoor environment, the study shows that with proper design consideration of the findings in the study, it is possible to achieve thermal comfort for outdoors in Dubai for longer periods of the year. ItemA Modified Double Skin Façade for the Desert Climate Integrated with Evaporative Cooling Spray(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-06) Ventura, Redentor G.Existing literature on double-skin facades is reviewed, including classifications and its transferability to hot and humid climates. The analysis led to evaporative cooling spray, where objectives are drawn to quantify its benefit. For research tools, selection process for appropriate software is undergone followed by training to achieve proficiency. Basic software validation is conducted using an actual building consumption comparison. The simulation parameters are established by changing a Prototype configuration to determine its energy consumption, mass air flow and CFD patterns. Governing equations are explained and utilized for manual calculations together with the Psychrometric chart that plots values against various air conditions. Simulation results are post processed and integrated into the equation to achieve values not covered in the software capability. Results show 5% energy consumption savings utilizing double skin facades. There are little energy savings with the tested variables in configuration. Air mass flow is generally improved by increase of width and height while orientation air flow results vary. Using the proposed spray on the double skin façade, Prototype day design savings on an office building is improved by 3% while a residential building could benefit from 50 – 90% reduction. The dissertation concludes with limitations and suggestions for future. studies. ItemInvestigating the effect of Light Pipes, as Daylight Strategy, on Employee Performance Levels in High-Rise Office Buildings in the UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-10) Asad, Dyala SamiCorresponding with the importance of daylighting, studies have established the non-energy related benefits of daylighting at office buildings. Quantitative studies and qualitative statements are utilized during the course of this research to study the integration of light pipes, as part of daylighting strategy in office buildings, and its effects on employee performance levels. Data compiled from books, journals and interviews as prime sources of research and analysis have provided the essential background information necessary to identify the main subjects of this research paper. Interviews conducted provided essential details related to employees perspective about bringing daylighting inside their offices. The research takes part in two phases; the first phase involves comprehensive analysis and study of light pipes and their application in high rise office building, while the second phase involves simulation of the effect of introducing natural light on employee performance levels inside a workspace. In this research, the performance and efficiency of various sizes of light pipes inside a high rise office building is explored. Simulation models were employed to test a given office space in Dubai, and explore the integration of three main different sizes of vertical and horizontal light pipes to help achieve uniform daylighting level at the workspace during the day and thus improve employee performance levels. The literature available concludes that environmental factors have an effect on the ability of employee to perform inside an office space. ItemThe Use of Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) to Test New Designs for Improving Daylight Performance of Office Buildings in Dubai-UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2009-11) Abu-Dakka, Moana GhaziDaylighting has often been recognized as a useful source of energy savings and visual comforts. There has been increasing interest in using daylight to save energy in buildings. In the recent years, particular concerns have been raised about offices buildings developments and energy consumption issues in UAE. Many studies have shown that proper daylight space can improve occupant's productivity and it would reduce electric demand about 20%- 30% of the total building energy load. The dynamic nature of daylight poses many challenges when considering metrics that define good and effective daylighting design. In this research study, the main daylight characteristics and building parameters affecting daylight design are analyzed and discussed through simulations of the main indicators used to quantify what makes good daylighting design in order to refine the most applicable indicator to be used in Dubai's offices. To achieve this, the study will conduct a series of computer simulations using 3D Max Design to first show the effects of each parameter on the internal daylight efficiency and then provides a simplified metric method for measuring indoor daylight performance. Whereupon many strategies will be suggested leadings to effective solutions meet the daylight requirements of the space, which can contribute reducing the electrical demand, and helps achieve environmentally sustainable building development. The main outcomes results of this study are:- Daylight illuminance falling on vertical surfaces, can be used to determin and evaluate the daylight performance of a building. A comparative study to daylight evaluation metrics gave the preference for Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) to be the most compatible metric with UAE climate conditions. Statistical daylight analysis indicated that north oriented office performs better than other directions. Some simple daylighting static systems such as overhangs and shading devices could be used to improve the daylighting efficiency in north and south oriented offices ,while solutions would be more complicated in east and west . The effects due to nearby obstructions buildings strongly affect the daylight performance specially in the lower floors. Building designers should take into consideration the external environment in order to achieve well preformed office designs. The output of this study can be used as a pre-design tool to ensure that building spaces meet recommended daylight levels and protected from glare, reflections and direct sunlight. The results can be converted to suggested guidelines towards an effective management for offices regulation that could provide a strong outline for future offices design based not only on theoretical solutions, but also on practical simulations and evaluation tools. ItemAn Evaluation Study of Dynamic External Louvers in Office Building in Abu Dhabi(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-02) Hammad, Fawwaz T.In the past years, there has been a growing interest among building designers and owners to include intelligence and dynamic systems, as a way for achieving energy-efficient buildings that comply with stringent energy codes and national goals of reducing dangerous emissions, together with improving corporate image. Dynamic façade features have not been sufficiently studied in the Arab Gulf Region. Therefore, this research aimed at exploring the influence of incorporating external dynamic louvers in office buildings under climatic conditions of Abu Dhabi city, through the perspective of energy consumption. By means of computer energy modeling, a proposed office module was used to evaluate overall energy performance of external dynamic louvers for the south, east and west oriented façade. An economic analysis was carried out also to explore the viability of adapting such dynamic systems in the local market of Abu Dhabi. The results of this research showed that the installation of dimming methodology for lighting was always advantageous. It was found that the potential energy saving for south, east and west oriented façade was 24.4%, 24.45% and 25.19%, respectively. The proposed dynamic fenestration system with dimming light achieved maximum energy reductions among other scenarios, although by small margin in many cases. The dynamic system achieved a reduction of energy consumption of approximately 34.02%, 28.57% and 30.31% for south, east and west orientations, respectively. The optimal angle fell between -20° and 0° for the south oriented façade and between 0° and 20° for east and west oriented façade. The results of the economic analysis showed that high construction costs and low prices of electricity in Abu Dhabi were direct reasons for the unfeasible investment of the proposed static or dynamic fenestration systems. In conclusion, the dynamic ability of external louvers can improve the energy performance of fixed louvers especially when lighting control methodology is applied. However, a careful integration of any proposed dynamic system and glass properties is highly recommended to help acting as a true energy saver as well as environmental controller. ItemCourtyard Housing in Midrise Building An Environmental Assessment in Hot-Arid Climate(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-03) Al Masri, Nada RaficThis study is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of courtyard integration in midrise housing in the hot-arid climate of Dubai, The United Arab Emirates. A computer simulation (IES 6.0) is utilized to measure selected parameters: thermal analysis, solar shading, daylighting and airflow patterns, and primarily to determine the overall energy reduction. This study is carried out in three steps: The first step, a comparison of conventional and courtyard models is carried out in six-storey buildings. The second step, a courtyard building is studied to determine design optimum parameters in which one variable changes at a time when all other remain constant according to a suggested prototype model (reference model), and the third step compares it again to the conventional model. The first step concludes a reduction of 6.9% energy for the courtyard model. The second step concludes that the optimum design parameters for a courtyard model is achieved with ten-storey height, triple-glazed opening, 40 cm-thick wall and 10-cm thick Cellular Polyurethane insulation material. The third step achieves 11.16% total energy use reduction for six-storey courtyard model with the optimum parameters. Finally, the study suggests guidelines and recommendations for efficient courtyard designs for midrise buildings. Furthermore, it extends recommendations of configurations to other different climates, besides the hot arid, in order to overcome the limitations of the proposed model. ItemPerformance of shading device inspired by traditional hejazi houses in Jeddah Saudi Arabia(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-08) Batterjee, Sara AdelWith the recent economic boom in Saudi Arabia many new high-rise buildings, residential compounds and social complexes are under construction. Designing these buildings without respect to the residents‟ social and religious needs creates a problem in the development toward globalization and acceptance of resulting urban change. This research seeks to propose a solution through the development of a shading device inspired by an environmental control architectural element of window shading, found in traditional Hejazi architecture of Saudi Arabia called al Roshan, that provides the physically desirable amount of natural-lighting and maintains socially-accepted visual privacy. Five shading device design cases were proposed, and different parameters manipulated and tested for natural-lighting lux levels using Ecotect and Radiance software. The first design case succeeded in providing comfortable natural-lighting levels. In addition, the design‟s cooling efficiency, when calculated and compared with the traditional Roshan in the same tested room, provided comfortable natural-lighting levels for North, South and West directions. It was also the best approach for most eastern orientations, except during the early morning hours. As it succeeded in reducing 50 % of the cooling loads compared to the traditional Roshan design, the proposed shading device was shown to be an energy-efficient solution. ItemEnergy Performance of Public Housing Buildings in Sao Paulo, Brazil An Evaluation of the Current Design Process(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-09) Leister, Alexandra Maria AguiarWith global warming and its impact on the environment becoming more evident, sustainability has become a major factor to lessen the damage being produced by men. Numerous are the reasons why sustainability is hard to achieve and various are the culprits for environmental damage. Among all, buildings have been identified as one of the biggest causes to environmental damage. On one hand, attention has been drawn to astounding designs that trespass human imagination. On the other hand, the worldwide population increase forced the implementation of mass production constructions to solve housing deficits. Frequently, buildings for the underprivileged lack design, compromising the environment and the achievement of sustainability. This is especially true in developing societies. This research examines how public housing design has been produced to attend low income populations in Sao Paulo, Brazil and how much changes in the existing design affects the quality of the dwellings and energy consumption. The hypothesis of this research is that energy efficient architecture concepts applied to the current design of public housing in Sao Paulo are able to reduce energy consumption in the buildings. In this study, computer simulations are used to evaluate current energy performance of public housing buildings as well as to simulate the incorporation of new materials into the design and assess their performance. The findings showed that there are many opportunities for architects to influence the quality of the design being produced for less fortunate populations in public housing buildings in Sao Paulo, which positively impact comfort conditions of the buildings and most important, reduce energy consumption by up to 50 percent. ItemAlternative Facades: Assessment of Building Integrated Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Glazing— Energy Benefits and Future Potentials in Office Building in UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2010-12) Katanbafnasab, MohammadWith the decline of conventional fossil fuels and the rapid growth of human population, the importance of curbing our energy consumption and reducing our dangerous emissions is now more obvious than ever. Since buildings are one of the top consumers of energy, it is not surprising that many designers, engineers, and architects are starting to address the significance of the building envelope in minimizing energy demands especially in office buildings. While many new alternative façades offer such energy saving benefits, the use of two particular technologies has not been studied enough in the gulf region. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) and Electrochromic (EC) glazing are perhaps also more important because the potential of both of these technologies is very closely related to the availability of sunshine, which is very abundant in this region. Thus, the aim of this research was to explore the energy benefits and future potential of these two systems within the climatic conditions of the city of Abu Dhabi. A computer energy modeling program was used to assess the energy performance, mainly the reductions in HVAC and lighting, of each system compared to a base case scenario for south, east, west, and north facing facades. Additionally, an economic analysis explored the feasibility of applications of these systems within Abu Dhabi’s construction industry. The result of this research showed that the BIPV is most advantageous on the south façade while the EC glazing performs best on the north facing windows. The BIPV model achieved a maximum energy consumption reduction of about 20.66%, 16.69%, 16.86%, and 1.35% for the south, east, west and north orientation, respectively against the base case model. On the other hand, the EC glazing model had much less benefit against the base case model with ‐2.86%, 1.35%, 0.89%, and 7.41% energy savings for the same orientations, respectively. The increase in glass shading coefficient increased the energy savings (15%) in the BIPV model against the base case. Similarly, the EC glazing showed significant improvement in energy savings (11.17%) over the base case which used higher shading coefficient. Moreover, the change in sensor location from 2m to 4m increased the energy savings for both cases, although the change was very marginal compared to the change of the glass properties. The results of the economic analysis showed that due to high capital cost and low cost of electricity, neither system is currently feasible for investment. However, with future advances in each system and more efficient designs, the pay back periods would become tangible and therefore yield better performances. In conclusion, using an automated light control system with dimming for both models, compared against the standard on‐off lighting mechanism in the base case, the BIPV proves to have a higher energy saving potential than the EC glazing. If these two technologies were to be combined, the best configuration would be to install BIPV on the East, South, and West façade, while the EC glazing is used on the North façade. ItemDesigning Dubai based resident with energy conservation measures(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2011-01) Amin, Ghazal Saeed ItemThe energy saving potential of using the optimum external fixed louvers configurations in an Office Building in UAE climate condition(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2011-01) Al-Geresi, Shareef YahiaStudies on the effect of external fixed louvers shading device on office buildings energy performance in UAE climate condition have shown that the louvers application caused a significant energy saving potential for the South, East and West orientations. However, the different louvers configurations and properties estimate a different performance in energy saving. This research aimed to exploring the influence of changing the louvers Aspect Ratio AR, louvers color, louvers slat tilt angles and louvers material in the energy performance of office building in Dubai city. A virtual office unit model with the same parameters of existing office building in Dubai was used to evaluate the energy consumption performance of external fixed louvers for the South, North, East and West orientations. The IES-VE computer simulation software was used to predict the energy consumption in order to evaluate the effect of difference louvers configurations and properties in energy performance. This study found that the louvers shade application with the same AR value of Louvers Width / Lovers Spacing distance (LW/LS) results approximately the same effect in energy saving. This is important as we can focus on the effect of AR only without having to test the different combination of LS and LW that give similar AR. The study found that the optimum energy saving reduction was recorded by using lovers (AR=3.0) with semitransparent material with Visible Transmittance (VT) 50% was achieved 33.16% annual average energy saving comparison with the base case (without louvers shading and light dimming system) for the South orientation. The optimum louvers AR configuration was AR=3.0 with annual average percentage of reduction in energy saving 29.33%, 25.06% and 23.47% for the South, East and West orientations, respectively. The study found also that the changing in louvers AR is more efficient in energy saving than the changing in louvers angles. ItemThe potential role of nuclear energy in mitigating CO2 emissions of te built environment in the United Arab Emirates(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2011-02) Alfarra, Hasan JamilCarbon Dioxide emission is a foremost contributor to the threatening global warming and climate change. It is more than doubled in the UAE since 1990, and the electricity generated by conventional energy is responsible for almost half of the country’s emissions. As willingly committed to Kyoto Protocol in 2005, the UAE decided to integrate nuclear energy into the electricity scheme to mitigate CO2 emissions. This research is set-up to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed nuclear energy in mitigating CO2 emissions from the built environment of the UAE which achieved thereafter in the due course Chapters. MESSAGE modeling software from IAEA is used with the dissertation’s simulation research methodology to compute the energy demand and CO2 emissions up to 2050. Business As Usual (BAU), the UAE proposed case (APR 1400) and Clean Energy Era (CEE) of twelve sub-classification are examined in the form of simulation scenarios. The results of energy switching and CO2 emission are individually interpreted and thereafter the entire scenarios included in results comparison. The nuclear energy in its extreme CEE scenario (8NPPs) supplies around 62% of the total electricity grid, and found mitigating almost 93.9% of the CO2 emission from the BAU and 63.3% of the CO2 emission from the UAE proposed scenario (APR 1400). Nuclear energy, furthermore, found more appropriate in mitigating CO2 than renewable energy and carbon capture and sequestration among the simulated scenarios up to 2050. Economic analysis is, moreover, performed to evaluate the viability of nuclear energy which confirmed its economical feasibility aside the environmental viability. The 8NPPs scenario found saving around $18.94 billion in the 2050 due to fuel switching to nuclear power in addition to the possibility to trade almost 296.5 million tone of CO2 in the same year. ItemThe Effects of Different Faucet Aerators on Bacterial Growth and Water Quality(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2011-04) Bader, Mahmoud FathiSustainable innovations aimed at protecting future generations from the effects of the global warming in addition to preserving precious natural resources such as water. Water conservation is one of the green building features, which may be achieved by using appropriate water saving plumbing fixtures like faucet aerators. Although benefit may be achieved by using such fixtures, there are also negative side effects to their use. This study was conducted in Dubai International Academic City (DIAC), to investigate the consequences of using different faucet aerators on bacterial re-growth which may compromise the quality of the water; and to check the deterioration of the efficiency of the aerators over the time. The study is based on experimental method. Four types of faucet aerators were used, and monitored every four weeks over a six month period. 120 water samples were collected from 16 faucet aerators, and there were also 3 control points which were under three different water pressures. The water tank was also tested. A Heterotrophic Plate count was used since it is a common indicator for the monitoring of microbiological water quality in distribution systems. The samples were tested in Dubai Municipality Central Laboratory. The water flow rates, pH and temperatures were measured in the field. The results revealed that, from cycle one to cycle four, the HPC bacteria concentration in the water tank exceeded the threshold level of 500 cfu/ml. Although the HPC concentration in the water tank dropped to a 4 level below 500 cfu/ml due to treatment from the main source, the HPC concentrations in the faucet aerators remained high. The study concluded that, water pressure less than 2.5 water bar has potential to enhance the growth of bacteria in the aerators. Furthermore, the aerators saved 20% to 80% of the water and that depended on the aerator types as well as the water pressure. Finally the research recommends that, a three month periodic maintenance for the aerators might avoid the accumulation of sediments, which were the main contributor to bacterial growth. ItemStrategies for Promoting & Integrating Renewable Energy Resources in UAE(The British University in Dubai (BUiD), 2011-04) Al-Amir, Jawaher HassanPower is a critical infrastructure input and the lifeblood of the development and growth of the economy of any country. Renewable Energy (RE) supplies are of increasing environmental and economic importance in all countries. Moreover, RE forms an important component in future energy supplies for the electricity supply industry. This research looks into moving energy policy in the UAE in the direction of sustainability to turn the UAE into a leading country in a new environmental field. The research covers UAE current energy policy especially relevant to RE as well as the current situation and future targets. Furthermore, the research looks into different countries and different case studies that have used RE. Moreover, best practices and applicable strategies to the UAE will be highlighted. A plan for the same was proposed and feedback from concerned authorities and stakeholders in the UAE were be considered to come up with a revised plan that can promote RE in the country. The findings showed that implementation of RE technologies are possible and can be applied in the UAE through different stages gradually. A draft policy was prepared and was revised based on stakeholder feedback. Moreover, the plan proposed was designed to be implemented in three stages (short, medium and long term). Some of the main components include a deregulation move in the emirate, country and gulf levels through different stages. Other components of the policy include access to the grid which is improved at each stage, as well as financial incentives and implementation of a Feed-In Tariff. Stakeholder Feedback from the Federal Ministry and Dubai Electricity and Water Authority was used to refine the policy.